extra= more, in addition to what is normal or normally needed, and so on.
learn : This verb has the same relation to ' learning' and ' learner' as the verb ' teach' has to ' teaching' and ' teacher'. The sense is ' be learning, be a learner of, get knowledge about '.
talk French : ' Talk' (or 'speak') is used before the word 'language' or the name of any language, in the sense of ' be able to make use of in talking'. So we "talk (speak) more than one language", or 'talk (speak) English, and so on". But when we want to put in what we say, we have t use the verb 'say' itself and make clear what language we are using by putting 'i' before it " "He said in French that he was happy to see us."
in return for == in payment for, in exchange for.
abroad == outside her own country. 'Go abroad ' == go to another country or other countries.
will have cost : Note the Past Participle of the verb 'cost ', and the fact that it is the same in form as the Simple Past. The form 'will have cost ' makes stronger the idea "when it is over and the cost has been counted."
camp == place where people are living in the open air, under canvas or with even less cover, like an army stopped somewhere for rest and food on its way to war.
Girl Guides : the name of an organization for girls the purpose of which is to give them experience of healthy outdoor living and working in groups,and training in being of use to one another and looking after themselves in woods and country, without the comforts and inventions of present-day existence. For example, they learn to make fires without matches, to guide themselves by the sun and stars, to cook over open fires, and so on.
tent == room-like structure of canvas, and so on which may be taken down and folded up for transport. See picture p. 55.
sleep : Another Basic noun which is also a verb == ' have a sleep, be sleeping'. "Tents to sleep in" means "tents to go to bed in, tents used as sleeping-places".
join the Boy Scouts == become a member of . . . The root sense of this verb use of the noun 'join' is, as you would expect, 'get joined '. (So, "He will join the two pieces of wood", "Join the ending to the word" and so on.) From that we come readily to "He will join the ship (that is, get together with it) at Aden." The present expansion is one step further. ' Join an organization' still has the idea of getting together with it, but in the special sense of ' become one of, become a member of '.
' Boy Scouts' is the name of an organization for boys having like purposes to the Girl Guides, which was copied from it. The word 'scout ' == man in the army and so on who is sent out to try to get knowledge of the designs, numbers, of the other side -- a job needing great self-control in the face of danger and an expert knowledge of how to get about quietly and secretly.
packed : The regular verb 'pack' has two senses : 1 . Put (clothes and so on) into a bag or box or parcel, specially for the purpose of taking them away with one ; 2 . Put clothes or anything else into (a bag, box, and so on). So you may 'pack your clothes' or 'pack your bag', or simply 'pack or 'pack up' and go. Note the Simple Past 'packed '.
leave : We have seen this verb used in the sense of 'go away without taking (something)' (as in the next line here : "We left our cat." Note the Simple Past form ' left '). But it may also mean simply 'go away' without naming the place, as we see it in "leave by an early train".
offered : The Simple Past of the regular verb 'offer' == 'make an offer'. Another Basic noun which is also a verb.
so long as == ' for the time that ', which is clear from the words, and from that it comes to have the further sense added to it 'in (or on) the conditions(s) that '.
fed : The Past Participle (and Simple Past) of the verb ' feed '.
parents : A person's parents are his 'mother and father'. Every child has two 'parents' and every mother and father is 'a parent'.
miles : A 'mile' is a 'measure of distance, about the distance which would be gone by a young person walking in from 12 to 15 minutes.
known : The Past Participle of the verb ' know '.
delightful == full of delight, causing delight. Another word formed by the addition of -ful. Remember ; harmful ' in Letter 6.
ripe == ready for eating or taking from the plant. This word is used of fruit, vegetables, grain and other natural produce.
ladders : A ' ladder' is a structure of steps which may be moved from place to place, for getting up to windows, the tops of trees and so on. See picture p. 54.
climbed : The regular verb 'climb' == 'go up when doing this is hard work, or when, for example, it is necessary to use one's hands as well as one's feet ', as in going up a tree or mountain or hill, or up a high wall and so on. Going up a ladder is not very hard work for the young, but even they generally have to use their hands.
tearing them on : The verb ' tear', of which ' tearing' is the -ing noun form, == get material parted, make a hole in it, by pulling, ("Tear the letter into bits."). You tear something on something when it gets hooked on it in some way and you pull away.
falling : This is the -ing form of ' fall ', another Basic noun which is also a verb, == ' have a fall '. Note the Simple Past ' fell ' in the next statement.
careful : this word, as you might expect == ' full of care', but 'care' in only one sense, that used in ' take care'. So the sense is, in fact, ' taking care'.,
scratched : The Simple Past of the regular verb 'scratch', the sense of which is : 'make a long narrow wound or mark on (anything) such as would be made by pulling a sharp point, or one's finger-nail, over it.'
trunk : The ' trunk' of a tree is its middle, chief, stem, frequently very large and very rough on the outside.
bled : The Simple Past of the verb ' bleed ', also the Past Participle.
hurt : The Past Participle of the verb ' hurt ' (Letter 3), which note is the same as the Simple Past ("the fall hurt him.").
lucky == helped by chance, having chance on one's side. Note the use of the verb with to after it to make clear in that way chance has been good to a person : "You were lucky to have left the train before it went off the line." But of course we say as well : "It was lucky that you had left" and so on.
break == get broken. The relation of this new verb to the Basic word 'broken' is not hard to see.
shore : land at the edge of the sea or other great water.
swim-suit == a piece of clothing for swimming in. You have had the word 'suit ' before in its commonest sense as 'coat and trousers (or skirt) which go together'. In addition it is used, as here, for clothing designed for some special named purpose.
towels : A ' towel ' is a cloth for drying oneself with after having a wash or going for a swim.
swims : ' Swim' is another Basic noun, like 'walk' and 'run', which is also a verb. the sense, naturally, is ' have a swim, send body through the water by working one's arms, legs, and so on, to keep it up and moving in some direction'. Note the Simple Past 'swam' in the next line.
bay == a deep curving in of the shore, forming a wide-mouthed pocket of sea let into the land. (See picture p. 56) The name is given to everything in the curve, water or shore or both.
rocks : A 'rock' is a great mass of stone, such as you see in the picture,. Like 'stone' itself, 'rock'may also be used as the name of the substance.
tide == the regular change in the level of the sea, the lift and fall caused by the attraction of the moon and sun, and generally taking place twice a day. Note that when the lift is taking place, and the water is coming in the direction of the land, we say the tide is coming in (or up), and when the level is getting lower, so that the water is going away from the land, we say the tide is going out (or down).
pools : A 'pool ' is a somewhat small body of water, without a current, formed in a hollow.
swimming : Note that the verb 'swim' puts an extra 'm' before the -ing or -er endings. ("Anne is a good swimmer.") We have seen that the Simple Past is 'swam', so there is no -ed ending.
digging : The verb 'dig' == 'make a hole in the earth and so on or get the earth turned over (as) with a spade'. So we may 'dig a hole' (in the garden). or 'dig the garden', or 'dig (in) the ground or the sand)'. Small children at the seaside, generally have buckets and spades to play with, because sand is such a good material for digging in, and it is fun to fill buckets with it.
shell : A 'shell' is the hard outer cover of some sea or land animal. Shells from which the animals have gone are very common on the sea-shore.
hidden : The Past Participle of t he verb ' hide', (Letter 2). Here the sense is simply 'covered up, kept from view'.
found : Note this Past Participle of the verb ' find ', which is t he same in form as the Simple Past.
built : The Simple Past of the verb ' build ', the same in form s its Past Participle (Book I, Letter 7).
sand-castle : .A 'castle' is a great building of old times specially designed to keep off attacks For some reason, the pointed masses of sand which children like to build on the sea-shore are called 'castles' or 'sand-castles' and often decorated with flags and steps cut into the sand to give a suggestion of those old buildings. See picture.
dug : The Simple Past of 'dig' and also its Past Participle.
played ball : That is, 'played some game with a ball '. After the verb 'play', ' ball ' by itself is used in the sense 'a ball game'.
shone : Note the Simple Past of 'shine' (Letter 2), which is the same in form as the Past Participle.
splashing : The verb 'splash' from which this -ing form comes, has the sense 'put liquid in violent motion so that drops are sent up into the air'. You may see water 'splash' when you send a stone into it, but Anne and John would be getting the same effect with their hands or feet, swimming or just playing. We may simply 'splash' or 'splash water (over someone)', or 'splash someone with water and so on' when we send it over him.
slept : Note the Simple Past of 'sleep', which again is the same in form as the Past Participle.
sail-boats : A 'sail-boat ' is a boat with sails.
blown along : In addition to the Past Participle of ' blow', note the use of 'along'. Used in this way, with no noun after it (you will remember 'walking along the road ' and ' the flowers along the hedge' in Letter 4), 'along' has the sense of ' forward, in some line of motion'. You will see from the next statement that the Simple Past of ' blow' is ' blew'.
trouble us : Another regular verb having the same form as a Basic noun. The sense is 'give trouble to'.
round the point : That is, round the point of land forming one end of the bay.
won : Past Participle of the verb 'win' and also its Simple Past.
a seaside town == a town by the sea. The land or places by the sea are named ' the seaside' (so we 'go to the seaside' for our holidays), and 'seaside' may be used before a noun as a short way of saying 'at the seaside'. As you know, the same thing is true of 'country' ('a country church'), and note in the next statement, ' holiday place' == place for holidays.
amuse == give amusement to. Note the connection with amusement and the fact that this verb must have after it the name of whomever the amusement is being given to. we may 'amuse some other person or persons' or we may 'amuse ourselves' ; we cannot simply 'amuse'.
crowd == a great number of people massed together.
exercises : You are used to the word exercise' in the sense ' bit of brain work given to the learner to give him training using what he has learned '. The sense of the word here, as used of the body, is parallel to that. an 'exercise' such as is done on the sand is a system of motions of the body, done over and over, frequently to music, for the purpose of training the muscles or making them stronger. ' Exercise' may also be used as a general word == ' the use, working of the muscles'. ("Exercise is necessary to keep people in good condition.")
restaurant : International word == 'place where meals may be got ', 'public dining-room'.
band : You may already know this expansion of ' band ' == 'group playing instruments of music together'.
sung : Past Participle of the verb 'sing' (Letter 1).
prefer == like better, be more pleased with. A regular verb.
the sands : A stretch of sand forming a shore is frequently named ' the sands'.
picking up : with up after it, pick has no longer any special suggestion of flowers, or fruit, the sense is simply ' take up (from the ground and so on), generally in one's hand '.
really : truly. The -ly form from 'real '.
change : As you would expect, the verb 'change' == 'make a change in, get (something) changed ', as here, or 'undergo a change' (as in "The colours change.").
autumn : The sense of this word is made clear in the Letter.
season == a time, a division or stretch of time. Its special use in connection with the calendar is made clear in the second part of the lesson.
fall off == come off the trees and down to the ground. Note the use of off with the verb ' fall '.
bare == without covering, uncovered or unornamented.
correspond: This regular verb == ' have a parallel relation (to one another), be like or parallel (in position, purpose, and so on)'. When things which 'correspond ' are named separately, we say that one of them 'corresponds with ' or ' to' the other.
made up of == formed of. We use ' be made up of ' in the sense of ' have as its parts, divisions', that is, when we are talking of something which is formed of a number of parts put together. We use ' be made of ', on the other hand, when we are simply naming the material of a thing. so "The house is made of wood" but "The house is made up of a middle part and two wings."
flower == (of a plant) put out flowers. A regular verb, corresponding to the Basic noun ' flower'.
plant : Another regular verb corresponding to a Basic noun. Here it == 'get seeds or plants put into (the fields, garden, and so on).' But it may also have the sense 'get (seeds or plants) put into the earth to grow.' So we plant a tree' and so on.
at this season: Note that at is more commonly used with the word 'season' than in. But in is always used (never at) with the name of any season (in the spring,) and with the names of the months (in March) and with the words year, month, and week (in the year 2000, in the last month of this season, in one week there were four deaths). As you will remember, the words 'day' and 'night ' and the names of days take on, if anything ("Come (on) Tuesday", "on the night of the fire").
at times == sometimes.
it snows == snow falls. ' Snow ' like 'rain' is a regular verb used only with ' it '.
exact == clearly limited, just right. Lower down, the -ly form from exact, 'exactly' gives the sense 'completely, with nothing over'. The general sense of 'exact ' is ' without error or short-coming, not too much or too little'.
means : The important verb 'mean', when used of language == ' have the sense'. It may also be used of persons in the sense ' have as purpose, be purposing', specially 'be purposing as the sense of one's words'. For example "He means to be kind" (that is his purpose), "He talks English so badly that I don't know what he means" (that is, what his words mean). Used of signs, mean == ' be a sing of ', as in "A red light means danger."
was born: ' Be born' == 'undergo birth, come into existence'.
A able (well able to), 6 about ( = roughly), 2 about (What about . . . ?), 6 above, 6 abroad, 7 absent, 2 ache, 3 ache (ached,ached), 3 add (added, added), 6 addition (in addition to) , 4 advice, 3 advise (advised, advised), 5 age, 2, 4 a great many, 3 airplane, 2 all (not at all), 5 along, 4 ; (blown along), 7 a long way, 4 already, 1 amuse (amused, amused), 7 amusing, 2 answer, 5 as (= because), 6 as (so as to), 3 as soon as, 1 asleep, 1 at the last minute , 1 at times, 8 autumn, 8 away (straight away), 2 B band, 7 bare, 8 bay, 7 beard, 2 beat (beat, beaten), 2, 3 ; beating, 3 beat, 3 because of, 1 belief (in the belief that), 1 believe (believed, believed), 1
bend (bent, bent), 6 Notes ; bending, 6 bleed (bled, bled), 6 ; bleeding, 6 ; bled, 7 blow ( blew, blown) , 2; blew, 7 ; blown, 7 born (be born), 8 Boy Scouts, 7 break (broke, broken) , 7 bring up, 6 Notes brought, 2 bunch, 1 bush, 4 C calendar , 8 camp , 7 car , 3 careful , 7 ceremony (ceremonies) , 5 change (changed, changed), 5 chicken, 3 chimney, 1 christening, 5 Christian name , 5 Christmas, 1 ; Christmas Day, 1 Christmas Eve, 1; Christmas pudding, 1 class, 5 climb (climbed, climbed), 7 cook (cooked, cooked), 2 correspond (corresponded, corresponded), 8 cost, 7 cough (coughed, coughed), 3 could, 3 ; couldn't, 5 council, 5 count (counted, counted), 3 cousin, 1 crack (cracked, cracked), 2 Notes; cracking, 2 crowd, 7 cry (cried, cried), 2, 4 cure (cured, cured) , 3 curly, 2 custom, 1 cut, 6
D dance, 1; dance (danced, danced), 1 decorate (decorated, decorated,) 1 delay, 1 delight, 6 ; to his delight, 6 delightful, 7 dig ( dug, dug) , 7 discuss (discussed, discussed), 5 do (have to do with), 5 doctor, 3 doll, 2 door (next door), 2 down (lie down), 4 dream, 2 dress up (as),2 drum, 2 dry (dried, dried), 6 Notes; dry up,6 E eager, 4 either (. . . or), 6 else, 6 enjoy (enjoyed, enjoyed), 1, 2 ; enjoy oneself, 2 eve (Christmas Eve), 1 exact, 8 ; exactly,, 8 excite (excited, excited), 4 Notes ; exciting 4 exercise, 7 expect (expected, expected), 1, 6 extra, 7 F fact (in fact), 5 fall (fell, fallen), 5 ; fall off , 8 father-in-law, 2 feed (fed, fallen), 7 fall off, 8 feel (felt, felt), 1, 3 fell, 7 fertilize (fertilized, fertilized), 6 Notes ; fertilizer, 6, fertilizing, 6 fever, 3 feverish, 3
few, 4 fill (filled, filled), 1 finally, 4 ; final, 4 Notes find (found, found), 1, 2, 7 fine (of weather), 4 ; (= very good), 6 finished, 6 first, 2 fix (fixed, fixed), 5 flower (flowered, flowered), 8 follow (followed, followed), 3 fond (of), 4 foreign, 4 forget, (forgot, forgotten), 2, 4 fun, 4 funeral, 5 G garden (gardened, gardened), 6 gay, 1, gaily, 2 generous, 2 germ, 2 get to work, 6 Girl Guides, 7 goal, 3 Notes ; goal-keeper, 3 great friends, 4 greeted, 2 ; greeting(s), 1 ground, 6 grown (into), 6 guess (guessed, guessed), 4 H hall, 1 handkerchief, 4 happen to (be), 4 harm, 6, harmful, 6 have to do with, 5 headache, 3 hear (heard, heard), 1, 5 ; heard, 1 heart-beat, 3 hedge, 4 held, 3 hesitate (hesitated, hesitated), 4 hide (hid, hidden), 2, 7 hill,4 hockey, 3 holiday (on holiday), 1 hung, 1 hungry, 43 hurrying, 1 hurt (hurt, hurt), 3 I illness, 3 in addition to, 4 in fact, 5 inside, 2 in the belief that, 1 intend (intended, intended), 5 interest (interested, interested). 5 iron (ironed, ironed), 5 ; the ironing, 5 irregular, 3
J joke, 2 join (joined, joined), 7 juice, 3 just, 2, 6 K kill (killed, killed), 6 kiss (kissed, kissed), 4 knew, 1 knock, 4 knocker, 4 know, 5 ; known, 7 L ladder, 7 last night, 3 laughter, 4 lawn, 6 ; lawn-mower, 6 lay 4 leave (left, left), 5, 6, 7 learn (learned, learned), 7 lend (lent, lent), 5 lesson, 5 lie (lay, lain), 4 ; lie down; lay, 4 look for, 2 lucky, 7 lunch, 4 M made up of, 8 make money, 5 make up one's mind,4 many (a great many), 3 Many Happy Returns, 4 marriage, 5 mean (meant, meant), 8 medicine, 3 member, 2 merry, 2 met, 4 mile, 7 mind (make up one's mind), 4 mind (minded, minded), 5 minister, 5 minute (at the last minute), 1 more (= in addition), 2 mother-in-law, 2 Notes N negative, 4 Notes neighbour, 6 nest, 4 next door, 2 not at all, 5 note (noted, noted), 3 O offer (offered, offered), 7 on a voyage, 4 on holiday, 1 opened, 1 overhead, 1 ought, 3 outside, 1 own, 6 ; of one's own, 6
P pack (packed, packed), 7 paint (painted, painted, 5 parent(s), 7 parish, 5 party, 2 path, 4 peaceful, 4 perhaps, 5 photograph, 1 pick (picked, picked), 6 ; pick up, 7 picnic, 4 piece, 2 plant (planted, planted), 1 play (games), 2 ; playing field, 5 pleasant, 2 point (round the point), 7 pool, 7 possessive, 4 Notes (friends of hers) postman, 2 practice, 5 preach (preached, preached), 5 prefer (preferred, preferred), 5 prepared, 1 pretty, 1 prick (pricked, pricked), 6 priest, 5 produce (produced, produced), 6 promise (promised, promised), 4 proud (of), 6 pull (pulled, pulled), 6 pulse, 3 put to bed, 3 R race, 5 rang, 5 rain (rained, rained), 6 reading, 3 reach (reached, reached), 6 real, 1 ; really, 8 recently, 5 ; recent, 5 Notes reindeer (reindeer), 1 remedy, 3 remember (remembered, remembered), 2 repair, 5 respect (respected, respected), 5 restaurant, 7 return (returned, returned), 3, 7 return (Many Happy Returns), 4 ; in return for 7 ribbon, 2 rich, 5 ring (rang, rung), 1, 5 ripe, 7 rock, 7 rose, 6 ; rose-bed running,5
S sail-boat 7 Sale of Work, 5 sands, 7 sandwich, 4 sang, 2 scratch (scratched, scratched), 7 seaside, 7 season, 8 ; at this season, 8 see much of, 5 send for, 3 Notes serve, 1 shall (should), 1, 3 shed, 6 shell, 7 shilling, 4 shine (shone, shone), 2 Notes ; shining, 2 shore, 7 shown, 6 shut (shut, shut), 4 sideboard, 1 sing (sang, sung), 1, 2, 7; singing, 1 sleep (slept, slept), 7 sleigh, 1 smashing, 2 sneeze (sneezed, sneezed), 3 snow (snowed, snowed), 8 so as to, 3 so long as, 7 softly, 1 soon (as soon as), 1 sore, 3 sow ( sowed, sown) , 6 speak ( spoke, spoken) 6 splash ( splashed, splashed) , 7 spray (sprayed, sprayed). 6 stand (stood, stood), 5 Notes, 6 ; standing, 5 ; standup, 6
stay up, 1; it stays light, 6 stop (stopped, stopped), 3 straight away, 3 string, 2 study (studies), 2 subject, 5 suitable, 4 Sunday School, 5 sung, 7 supper, 6 suppose (supposed, supposed), 5 sweet, 4 swim (swam, swum), 7 T taste (tasted, tasted), 4 teach (taught, taught), 5 team, 3 tear (torn, torn), 7 tell, 3 temperature, 3 ten-shelling note, 4 tent, 7 thank (thanked, thanked), 2 thermometer, 3 thorn, 6 thoroughly, 4 thought, 6 tide, 7 told (I am told), 5 tool, 6 touch (touched, touched), 6 towel, 7 toy, 2 traffic, 4 troubled ( troubled, troubled) , 7 trunk (of tree), 7 turkey, 1
U understand (understood, understood), 6 unless, 6 unwell, 3 up (made up of), 8 ; (make up one's mind), 4 ; stay up, 1 used to (give), 5 V valley, 4 village, 4 visit, 3 voyage (on a voyage), 4 W wait (waited, waited), 1 wake (woke, woken), 1 ; wake up, 1 water (watered, watered), 6 way (a long way), 4 weak, 3 weed, 6, weed (weeded, weeded), 6 well able to, 6 wish, 1 wished, 1 win (won, won), 5, 7 wonder (wondered, wondered), 1 wonderful, 2 won't, 3 wore, 1 work (get to work), 6 worry (worried, worried), 3 woven, 4 wrist, 3 wrote , 5 Y yet, 1