General History in Outline and Story
XIII . THE WORLD OF THE PRESENT DAY
73 . Political Relations in the Pacific
74 . The Revolution in Science and Industry
75 . The Great Developments of Present-day Science
76 . The Great War and After
77 . What of the Future ?
73 . POLITICAL RELATIONS IN THE PACIFIC
The fight or free and independent existence went on among the nations more or less all through the eighteen hundreds, and it was taken up again in the Great War. With the political changes in Europe had come increased competition overseas for trade, colonies, and power. International relations became very delicate near the end of the eighteen hundreds, and war in Europe seemed certain more than once before it came in 1914.
The story of the Pacific Islands in present-day history gives us a good idea of some of the complex questions caused by the expansion of Europe overseas.
Australia and New Zealand are part of the British Empire in the Pacific. The interest of the British in these parts goes back to the days of Captain Cook (1728-79), who made a journey of discovery in the Pacific and put up the British flag in New South Wales. North of Australia there are the East Indies, where the Dutch, with their spice trade, have had their trading-stations from about 1600.
North and east of Australia and New Zealand there is the great band of thousands of islands stretching across the South Pacific -- most of them in small groups, but some by themselves. the greater part are south of the Line. Some have been made by the little coral insects of the sea, and some are the tops of mountains which have been forced up from the sea-bed. They are of all sizes from small masses of stone to the greatest of the Fiji Islands, which is about half the size of Sicily. They are of all sorts -- some with great numbers of persons living on them and others with no one. And the groups on them are very different from one another. Some readily make an adjustment to European ways and control, some are very much against it. In earlier times there was much division among them, and frequent fighting between the different little towns and family groups ; and the most shocking of all acts, the use of men for food, was not uncommon among some of them.
They are so placed that they are like stepping-stones from Australia across the Pacific to North and South America, and for this reason they have become very important in present-day history.
From a map of the Pacific, as it is today, we see that almost all the islands are under the flag of one or other of the Great Powers, and that a great number of them are part of the British Empire. But from a map of the Pacific as it was fifty years back, we see that at that time only one or two of them had been taken in the name of any country, though Europeans -- for purposes of religion and trade -- had been at work in them for fifty years before that. What was the cause of this change?
One of the chief causes was the danger of the development of a new slave trade. In North Australia and South America workers were needed, and a trade in men from the islands came into being. At its best, it was a good thing, or at least not a bad one. The men went to work for a year or two, and come back to their islands with new knowledge, which they were able to make good use of there. It was an education. But at its worst the men were taken off by force, and did not come back. Their friends then took the law into their hands and made war on those responsible, and no one was safe.
It was necessary to put an end to these conditions, and some of the islands were taken under British rule for this reason. To let this sort of thing go on was not to let the islanders be free, but to let them be crushed out of existence. Control of the islands was, in fact, chiefly control of the white trader, whom no power on earth would have been able to keep out of the islands in days of world-wide trade.
Again, fear of French colonies had much to do with the British Government's decision to take over Australia and New Zealand. At times British colonies in the Pacific Islands had gone so far as to make requests for help to the French when Britain would not do anything for them.
The when the Germans became united under Prussia (1871) there was a strong pushing of German trade in the great groups of islands north of Australia and the interests of the other countries seemed to be in danger. Germany was clear about its purposes and quick acting. It was the behavior of Germany, more than any other thing, which made the division of the islands necessary.
The United States and Japan came later. When the United States took the Philippines from Spain, a line of connection with these islands became necessary and Hawaii was a half-way house.
Some of the greatest islands are in the Fiji group, which is controlled by Britain. In taking this group, Britain was again moved by the need to keep order. Missionaries had been there for a long time ; traders, through their ways of getting workers had been the cause of violent outbursts, and as an outcome of this a bishop was attacked and put to death in the Santa Cruz group. At last Fiji itself was made British (1874), and a year later a government representative was sent to the Pacific, with th power over the British only.
Then the same sort of events took place in New Guinea, where existence is still almost the same as it was in the Stone Age. The Dutch had been in the west part for a long time, and Queensland had been interested in the island from the early eighteen hundreds. Feeling in Australia was very worked up, because there was no doubt about German designs there, though the British Government in London for some time kept its eyes shut to them. Bismarck, however, made it clear that he north-west of New Guinea had most attraction for German interests. The south-east was good for Australian interests, and the British at last took control of this (1884).
The Great War (1914-18) saw the destruction of German power in the Pacific, chiefly to the profit of the other powers there. Japan took the islands north of the Line, among them the Marshall Islands, which made her designs greatly feared in Australia.
Today some of the most important international question have to do with the
74 . THE REVOLUTION IN SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY
The world of today is still working out the questions handed down from the French Revolution in the political field, and the English 'Revolution' in industry. the Revolution in Industry has been responsible for more changes in men's ways of living and in the sort of things they do than any other event in history. It was the outcome of uniting science and industry.
The starting-point of present-day science was the Renaissance, when Copernicus, Galileo, and others took up again the work of the early Greeks and made great additions to their knowledge of the physical world. Another important writer on science in these early days, to whom we are in debt, is Francis Bacon. Then, in the seventeen hundreds, science was for the first time made use of in industry. Up to that time there had been very little change in the ways of industry for hundreds and hundreds of years. For example, cloth and pots were still being made in much the same way as in early Egypt ; the potter's wheel and the loom for making thread into cloth were not very different from those used by the men of the later Stone Age. Again, the system of farming and of crushing grain were almost the same.
By 1700 such an increase in business and trade had been effected by the great discoveries that it became hard for the traders of Europe to make enough goods for the market. Britain was first in the field with a group of inventions by which, in time, industries of all sorts were comely changed. When George III became King, Britain was a farming country, in which most men were living and working on the land ; at his death it was becoming a country of great industries.
In the eighteen hundreds the same sort of revolution took place in different European countries, in America, and in fact, all over the earth. With this growth of trade, science, and invention the chances of making men happier seemed to be increasing, and common sense was able to give new answers to old questions. Some of the best were those put forward by the great Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832).
Hargreaves' invention of the 'spinning-jenny' -- for producing cotton thread -- was made two years after Rousseeau's Social Contract came out. At the time of the fall of the Bastille, the last touches were being put to the first steam-power cotton works in Manchester. And Stephenson go this 'Number 1' engine going for the first time in the year before Waterloo.
Iron was needed for the new machines, and coal for working the iron. In time the present-day 'blast-furnace,' in which a current of heated air is sent automatically through the fire, took the place of the old-time hand-blowers, which had been used for producing the great heat necessary to make iron liquid. Quick and simple transport for the increasing number of goods became a crying need. Waterways were made ; roads, which had had little care from the time of the Romans, were put into good condition by new processes ; the train took the place of the slow stage-carriage. Steamships were being used in place of sailing-ships a short time after Waterloo ; and the invention, later, of a new apparatus for driving ships through the water (the 'screw propeller') gave a great impulse to ship-building. Last, with the use of steam plow the Revolution had its effect on the oldest of all industries.
These inventions made possible the producing of goods with much less work and in a much shorter time. In building the great Cathedral at Cologne, in 1870, as much stone was lifted in one day by two men using steam power as would have been lifted by three hundred and sixty men in the same time in the Middle Ages. Expert bootmakers in the old days were able to make, at best, only four shoes in a day ;at present a man with the help of machines makes one thousand in a day. In one year, now, six English workers are able to make enough bead for a thousand persons for the same space of time. This is taking into account all work done, from the plowing of the land to the distribution of the bread to the user.
The producing of goods on a very great scale was made possible by all these new inventions. The desire for international trade became sharper, and there was increased competition for markets int Europe and overseas. The world became on as never before in the history of man.
One has only to go to Mount Vernon, the house of George Washington in the United States, to see how great has been the change in our ways of living. George Washington, when he was living on the property, was, for the commoner everyday needs almost completely independent of transport. Not only did he get from his land enough food for his private use and for that of his dependents, but among the slaves on his plantation were workers in iron and wood, shoe-makers, and makers of clothing; and cloth for the rougher sort of clothing was made in his house from wool and cotton produced on his farms. Today, country-houses are generally near a railway station, and have their stores sent out to them every week, or more frequently, from the nearest great town, possibly a hundred miles away.
Unhappily the changes in industry came so quickly that little thought was at first given to the worker in the new conditions -- when goods made by machines in the works were taking the place of goods made by hand with simple instruments in the houses. Great, unbeautiful towns, frequently black with smoke, went up, where before there had been smiling little country towns and great open spaces. There were at first no laws about hours and conditions of work, and the existence of some of the workers was little better than that of slaves. It became clear that they would have to make a fight for their rights, and by degrees, because better working conditions seemed to the owners of industry to be against their interests, there came about bitter feeling between the two sides. Workers' trade organizations were formed, which in time got great power and did much for the education and well-being of the workers in Britain and other countries.
In fact, the revolution in industry went hand in hand with the political revolutions in causing a change in the outlook and system of government. Everywhere the power of Kings and of the great landowners became less, and more power was given to the Masses. The business men and store-keepers, the workers, the farm workers, and at last, the women, were all, in time, given a voice in the selection of the government. Little by little, attention was turned to making conditions better all round, and much-needed changes were made in industry, education, the care of disease, housing, and the general well-being of the worker.
75 . THE GREAT DEVELOPMENTS OF PRESENT-DAY SCIENCE
Then came another great discovery in science, the development of which is still going on. After Faraday's work on the electric current (that is, from about 1830), a new sort of power came in to take the place of steam. The telegraph, the telephone, and the underseas telegraph (the cable) were made possible. With the invention of a new sort of engine—the 'internal combustion engine'—came the automobile and the airplane. A young Italian, Marconi, made radio a working thing (1893), and world-wide radio and the radio-telegraph were at hand. Today it would be very hard to make a list of all the uses of electric power in the work and pleasures of man. The development of machine processes by which goods may be produced on a great scale has given us the cheap automobile ; the first great business men to see what might be done in this direction in the automobile industry were Mr. Henry Ford in America and Lord Nuffield in England.
The good work of science is probably best seen in the great discoveries for overcoming pain and disease, and even for making our time on earth longer. Doctor Simpson (1847) was the first man to make use of chloroform for making us unconscious of pain. Lister made operations safe by his discovery that certain chemicals ('antiseptics') kept wounds from getting poisoned (1870) ; and Pasteur, by his tests with bacteria, made clear the causes of a great number of animal and plant diseases.
Certain great books had a very strong effect on the minds and ideas of men. Darwin, in his Origin of Species (1859), took up with the open mind, like the Greeks, the question of the existence and the development of living things, and gave a suggestion of a new way of looking at living beings. A book by Karl Marx on Capital (that is, money as used for the controlling of industry by private persons), in 1867, gave the impulse to those theories of society sometimes grouped under the word Socialism -- a word with a number of senses. These two men, Darwin and Marx, were the cause of as bitter a division of opinion in the fields of science and economics as Rousseau's Social Contract a hundred years earlier in the political field.
All these great changes in science, thought, and industry were the work of men and women of all nations. The outcome of them all has been to put men of different countries more in touch with one another, and frequently to make the competition between them sharper. Great works of engineering have been among the most important in making the world smaller -- for example, the Suez and Panama waterways, the Trans-Siberian, Canadian-Pacific, and other great railway systems.
Never in history have developments in every branch of living and knowledge come so quickly.
In the last hundred and fifty years the rate of development of man's control over natural things has been ten times as great as in the time between Caesar and Napoleon, a hundred times as great as int he slow years before recorded history. There were tens of thousands of years between man's first use of fire and his first use of it in connection with iron. Even in the age of history, when great works of art, science, and thought were given us by Greece, the art of writing was in existence thousands of years before the printing-machine. In those days every great invention was the keystone of society for long ages before its place was taken by another one. But in our day inventions, every one of which makes possible a revolution in our ways of living, comes one after the other as thick as the falling leaves.
76 . THE GREAT WAR AND AFTER
In 1914 the peace of Europe was violently broken by the start of the Great War. Its deeper causes were rooted in the great changes in industry and in political conditions which had taken place everywhere in the hundred years or more before.
Between 1815 and 1871 new nations had come into being and old nations had taken new forms, not only in Europe but in the Far East and the Far West. by 1871, or about then, Italy and Germany, America (North and South), and Japan had under-gone very important changes. At the same time, the Industrial revolution, which had had its start in Britain, was by degrees having its effect all over the earth. Competition for markets became sharper. Again -- as in the time of the Greek Discoveries -- there was a sudden expansion overseas of European trade and power. The British Empire was only one, though by far the greatest, of a number of colonial Empires. Further, the new Germany was now ready to take part in the fight for trade and Empire. Europe itself was arming more and more, every nation keeping a sharp watch on the others.
These complex developments, and the fears and desires to which they gave birth, were the true causes of the Great World War (1914-18). The event which put a match to the powder was the putting to death of an Austrian Archduke by Serbs, who were bitterly unhappy under Austrian rule and fired by the hope of becoming free, and united with other Serbian groups. The crime was the outcome of the burning desire for self-government and self-development of man of different blood from their rulers, forming pat of an empire still ruled more or less in the old way. And there were a number of such groups in other lands -- Poles, Czechs, Irish, Hungarians, and others -- with a like desire to become independent nations. Europe was still 'half-slave and half-free.'
Suddenly, in July 1914, men were faced, before they were conscious of what was coming, with a war such as had never been before. Nations, with every man in arms, were fighting one another for four years on a scale, and with a power of destruction, which no earlier time had ever seen, and it became clear that science and industry had made war a very different thing from what it had been in the past.
One of the effects of the Great War was the fall of those four Empires where the rule of the 'Great Kings' had gone on longest; the Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German and Turkish. Eleven Republics took their place on the map. Two of them, Poland and Bohemia, were old nations ; Bohemia, with some addition, now became the Czecho-Slovakian republic. Never had such great changes been made at one time in the map of Europe -- only at the time of the coming of the Barbarians after the fall of the Roman Empire. But, unhappily, inside almost all the new limits there were still 'minorities,' or small groups of different blood, cut off from their rights as nations (for example, two and a half million Germans under Polish rule, and a third of the Hungarians in Czech-Slovakia, Rumania, and Yugo-Slavia).
The new Turkey, under its Dictator-President, Mustapha Kemal, became a strong power in the Middle East (Asia), but in Europe it had no longer any lands but Constantinople (Turkish from 1453) and some country round it. Kemal made the ways and dress of the west current among the Turks, as Peter the Great, two hundred years earlier, had done among the Russians.
In the Russian Empire, with its more than one hundred and fifty million persons in Europe and Asia, was started in 1917 one of the greatest and most complete revolutions in history. The Tsar and his family were put to death, and the power was taken by the Communists, who were given the name of Bolsheviks (or 'the greater number'), These supporters of the idea of Karl Marx, at the head of whom was Lenin, working with the Soviets (or representative committees of the workers), gave Russia a completely new organization. The Empire of the Tsar became Soviet Russia -- or, to give it its full name, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Lenin was one of the greatest rulers Russia had ever had ; the Russians have the deepest respect for his memory, and Petrograd was newly named Leningrad after him. After his death (1924), his place was taken by his secretary, Stalin 'the man of steel,' who made a start, in his 'Five-Year Plan' (1928-32), on the great undertaking of building up on quite new lines, in harmony with the latest discoveries in every branch of science, all parts of this great nations -- its education, its industry, its farming. It seem probably that his Russian Revolution will be the cause of some of the most important developments which the story of man has seen.
[Stalin became a murderous dictator and the Soviet collapsed trying to keep up with the democratic and free U.S.A. ]
77 . WHAT OF THE FUTURE ?
The Great War was ended by the Treaty of Versailles (1919), but it was a very troubled 'peace' which came after it.
At different times in history men have been moved by the destruction caused by war to make attempts at pointing the way to peace. While the Thirty Years' War, which made a waste of the earlier Germany, was going on, Grotius had, in his great book (1625), put forward the bases of International Law. Again and again other, after other great wars, gave voice to the deep desire of serious men for unbroken peace. A further step was taken when, after the bitter wars by which a number of nations made themselves free in the eighteen hundreds, meetings took place at The Hague (1899, 1907) for the discussion of ways of smoothing out troubles between nations by 'arbitration,' or the decision of independent judges. This was the first serious attempt to put 'the rule of law' in operation among nations as among persons.
The price of the Great War was the loss of more than seven million persons and forty thousand million pounds ; and one of its most serious effects was the very great damage done to international trade. It is not surprising that men's minds were again turned to ideas of uniting the nations to put an end to war.
The outcome of this desire for peace was that the Covenant of the League of Nations became part of th Treaty of Versailles (1919). History gives support to the belief that some such organization is possible and wise. In early times Rome was the ruler of all the countries round the Mediterranean ; and in the Middle Ages Christian nations were to some degree united under the Pope. A League of Nations is at the same time a natural development and a very new and untested step. The present League of Nations has done good work in something getting agreements between countries on questions which in earlier days might have been the cause of war, and in getting better working conditions and helping the fight against disease all over the earth. But the League is still young and in need of adjustment, and unhappily some of the greatest and most important nations have little or no part in it. Today the chief hope of man is in an international world, based on the free development of nations, which are responsible, not only to themselves, but to the wider society of which they are a part.
After about ten years of troubled peace, the Versailles Treaty System seemed to be coming to an end. There were the older States with no further need for expansion (for example, France and Britain) ; and there were newer, less well-off States (such as German, Italy, Japan) which had come late into the competition for overseas colonies and markets. The newer States, and the 'minorities,' made protest against the Treaty. To make things much worse, trade had become bad a short time after the War (from 1920 on), and between 1930 and 1934 it went down at a rate without parallel. The blow to industry was most serious, and all countries went through very hard times. Everywhere there were thousands of men out of work, thousands of families in need, while at the same time produce was being wasted because there was no market for it. It has been said that the value of the loss to the world's trade in those four year (1930-1934) was equal to the amount of money wasted by all countries on the Great War.
It is not very surprising that the troubled years after the Great War gave birth to a number of new political systems, and forms of organization of trade and industry, under the control of Dictators. And it is to be noted that, though the different revolutions between 1789 and 1918 were for the purpose of getting some sort of representative government like that of Britain, the revolutions since 1918 have had little respect for democracy. All these later attempts, however, make much of the idea of organization -- in place of that of laissez faire (or 'letting things take their natural way') -- as necessary to the well-being of the complex present-day State. Two systems -- the National or Fascist * and the Communist -- based on very different beliefs, have specially taken the attention of Europeans.
The 'National' idea was put forward by the Fascists in Italy, under their 'Duce,' Benito Mussolini, who had been in the Italian army in the Great War. The belief of the Fascists was that groups of the same blood made the strongest and most natural 'nations,' and that the best thing was for every nation to make itself independent of others as far as possible. This idea had a special attraction in Germany, made bitter, as it was, by the Versailles Treaty and the taking of its trade and Colonies by other countries. In Germany Fascism took the name of National-Socialism, the system worked out by the Nazis under the control of the 'Fuhrer,' Adolf Hitler. The Fascist system was copied in some degree by certain other nations.
The other idea, of which Soviet Russia is representative is the 'Left Socialist,' or 'Communist' one, based on the theories of Karl Marx. The Communists see the cause of the world's trouble in the 'capitalist system,' in which they say, the materials necessary for producing are in the hands of private persons, and those who have money make a profit out of those who have not. The teaching of Marx was that all material were the property of the 'Community' (or group); and his hope was that a world-wide Communist Workers' Republic would one day be formed.
[Socialism fails when the number wanting things is greater than the number willing to work.]
After the first world war there were twenty years (1918-38) of very broken peace. Then in 1939 there was war again in Europe. Hitler, the German Fuhrer, helped by Mussolini, the Italian Duce, made himself the ruler of Europe from France to Norway, and in June 1940 he had only Britain against him. By 1941 it had become a general war, but Soviet Russia, under Stalin's direction, kept the German army, then almost to Moscow, from rolling on any farther. When Japan, at war with China, made an attack in December 1941 on Pearl Harbor in the Far East, the USA came into the war. In this second world war (1939-45) Germany, Italy, and Japan had ranged against them a group of thirty United Nations which, as the late President Roosevelt greatly said, were fighting so that everywhere in the world men might be free to say what is in their minds, free in their religion, free from need, and free from fear.
What of the future ? Not a great number of years back -- a little before 1900 -- the earth was still for the most part without automobiles or airplanes or radio. Science has now made space unimportant and the nations of the earth dependent on one another as never before. But if the discoveries of science do not give us a better and safer existence, then all the work of those who have done so much will be of little use. And science and industry have made possible destruction on such a scale that it is quite clear that the future of society is dependent on our power to put an end to war.
Man has done great things. Looking back we see him first fighting like an animal for his very existence ; then, by the power of his invention, coming to a higher and higher level of development till natural forces are his servants, and there seems to be no limit to the ways in which living may be made better and fuller. Is all this to be wasted because men are unable to keep peace among themselves?
As in 1918, so in 1946, our only hope is in an international world based on the free development of nations and making men free in those four ways. To make such a world possible is the chief purpose of UNO (United Nations Organization), the new and (it is to be hoped) better organization which has taken the place of the old League of Nations. Again, we say, what of the future? Will men at last make the most of their chance and go on in harmony to ever greater and greater things?
Bibliographic ( University of California http://melvyl.cdlib.org)
1. Carter, Edward Henry. A History of Britain, Oxford, The Clarendon Press, 1937. 5 v. illus., maps. 20 cm.
2. Carter, Edward Henry, 1876-1953. History of the West Indian peoples, [by] E. H. Carter, G. W. Digby [and] R. N. Murray. [Revised ed.] London, Nelson, 1967- v. illus., maps, ports. 20 cm. unpriced
3. Carter, Edward Henry, 1876-1953. The new past and other essays on the development of civilisation,, by J. H. Breasted [and others] Freeport, N.Y., Books for Libraries Press  viii, 183 p. 23 cm. Series title: Essay index reprint series
4. Carter, Edward Henry, 1876-1953. Russian cavalcade,, by E. H. Carter London : Nelson  viii, 152 p. : ill. ; 19 cm
5. Carter, E. H. 1876-1953. A history of Britain, 3d ed. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1960. xxiv, 1116 p. illus., maps (part col.) 20 cm.
6. Carter, E. H. 1876-1953. The new past and other essays on the development of civilisation,, by J. H. Breasted, H. J. Fleure [and others] edited by E. H. Carter. Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1925. viii, 183,  p. diagr. 19 cm.
7. Carter, E. H. 1876-1953. The Norwich subscription books, a study of the subscription books of the diocese of Norwich, 1637-1800,, by E. H. Carter. London, New York [etc.] T. Nelson & sons, ltd.  xxii, 201,  p. front., fold. maps, facsims. (part fold.) fold. tables, diagrs. (part fold.) 23 cm.
8. Carter, E. H. 1876-1953. Russian cavalcade,, by E. H. Carter. London, New York [etc.] : T. Nelson and sons ltd.,  x, 166 p. : illus., map, ports. 19 cm.
9. Carter, E. H. 1876-1953. The search for peace: a brief survey of world history /, by E.H. Carter ; maps prepared under the direction of J.F. Horrabin. London : Pitman, 1949. x, 189 p. : maps ; 19 cm.
10. Carter, E. H. 1876-1953. Two paths to freedom; Great Britain and the Commonwealth and the United States of America,, by E.H. Carter and Phyllis Wragge. London, Philip, 1951. 346 p. illus. 19 cm.
11. Wells, H. G. 1866-1946. A short history of mankind,, by H.G. Wells; adapted and edited for school use from the author's "Short history of the world", by E.H. Carter ... Oxford, B. Blackwell, 1927. viii, 183,  p. front., illus. (incl. maps) 19 cm.
12. Marten, Clarence Henry Kennett, 1872-. Histories, by C.H.K. Marten ... and E.H. Carter ... With illustrations from contemporary sources, and drawings by Hugh Chesterman ... Oxford, B. Blackwell  4 v. illus., maps. 19 cm.
13. Norwich Cathedral (Norwich, England). Studies in Norwich Cathedral history: an episcopal visitation of the Priory in 1308 and an archiepiscopal adjudication on priory rights in 1411., Documents edited by E.H. Carter. Norwich, Jarrold, 1935. 74 p. illus.
14. Carter, Edward Henry, 1876-1953. A history of Britain /, by E.H. Carter and R.A.F. Mears. Oxford : The Clarendon Press, 1937. xxiv, 1050 p. : ill., maps ; 20 cm.
DIVISIONS OF THE BOOK
I . -- THE FIRST STAGE
II . -- THE EARLY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE EAST
III. -- THE GREAT DAYS OF GREECE
IV . -- THE GREAT DAYS OF ROME
V . -- THE MIDDLE AGES
VI . -- THE 'NEW BIRTH' OF EUROPE
VII. -- NEW FORCES IN RELIGION AND THE GROWTH OF A NEW OUTLOOK
VIII -- THE EXPANSION OF EUROPE OVERSEAS
IX . -- THE 'GREAT KINGS' OF EUROPE
X . -- THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
XI . -- THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON
XII. -- THE BIRTH OF NEW NATIONS
XIII -- THE WORLD OF THE PRESENT DAY top