logoOgden's Basic English



    With this issue of Psyche the publication of the theoritical background, psychological and linguistic, of Basic English reaches its penultimate stage. By the time our next issue is ready for press the application of these researches, in the form of a working system, will be complete, and the task of rendering it available to the general public will then be only a matter of days.
    Of the two aspects of the technique of Word-elimination here presented, the second (Opposition) may for purposes of Basic be treated as part of the first (Definition). Definition by opposition, it will be maintained, is merely a strangely neglected method of providing substitute symbols. The Panoptic Eliminator shows its place in the general scheme of substution, where the Theory of Definition discussed in The Meaning of Meaning is developed and applied to Lexicography in general and to Conjugation in particular.
    It need hardly be pointed out that no part of the scaffolding with which we have been concerned in these columns for the past two years is designed to meet th eye of the user either at home or abroad. Basic must be presented like a radio set, with all the works concealed and only a few convenient knobs protruding for the public to twiddle. The simple instructions comprised in a miniature Key will enable each class of words to be set in operation without tears, though a little practice with the Panopticon, as described in our issue of January, 1929, will, we hope give more insight into words and their ways than many an elabrate course in Comparative Philology. Meanwhile we once more print the Basic Vocabulary up-to-date on the opposite page, for the benefit of those who care to try their hand at translations ; with the proviso that, until the Key is available, some familiarity with the ortholgical principles on which it has been constructed must be assumed.


Scientific, Basic, Mnemonic.

    The vocabulary of Basic English printed as a frontispiece to the present issue services a dual purpose.
   1. It contains in the first eight and a half columns the (850) worry by means of which ordinary communication in idiomatic English can be effected. This is itself an expansion of the mnemonic minimun of 500, which forms a first complete stage, as will be explained when the system is made available for the student in its entirety.
    2. By the addition of 100 words required for general science, and 50 for a particular science (Chemistry being the example here selected), it provides a total of 1,000 by means of which any scientific congress or periodical can achieve internationalism.
    The first vocabulary is equivalent in efficiency to approximately 5,000 words in any other simplification hitherto attempted, the second to approximately 10,000.
    Below the minimum named, only Pidgin English or travelers' enquiries can emerge , above the scientitie total we are at the level of international standardization and notation with which the 1,000 maximum has been systematically linked.
   It will be observed that the scientific addenda are all noun forms, i.e., they can be learnt as names requiring no further grammatical instructions. These are offered only as a provisional list, for experiment by our collaborators, so that by the time our next issue appears it will be possible to present a final scientific selection after eliminating all terms which can already claim international currency -- just as the general list which we have hitherto printed has now benefited by the elimination of the international items provisionally included for co-operative criticism.
    If, therefore, it be asked : why 500 words, why 850 words, why 1,000 words , why not 750 or 1,100, or even 1234, since there is no magic in numbers? -- the answer is that Basic is severely practical. Inasmuch as there are limits set (a) by the number of words which can be legibly printed on the back of a single sheet of note paper, (b) by the capacity of humans to assimilate symbols in a month's hard labour, (c) by the minimum first stage that is complete in itself, certain definite frames are indicated to which the linguistic material of a universal language must endeavor to adapt itself. Partly by good fortune, partly by dexterous manipulation, these spatial and mnemonic exigencies have been met without undue sacrifice.


The Languages of Science

    In the selection of the 50 words allotted to any particular science, which are themselves supplmentary to the 100 worths added for General Science the needs of the contributor both to learned journals and to the proceedings of congresses have been kept in view. Technical vocabularies of every sort have been sifted and each special inquiry has had its own special difficulties.
    The Chemical vocabulary here printed as a sample is designed to cover the key processes as well as the main groups of substances for which there is no direct formula.As already stated the words contained in the scientific vocabulary by which the scope of Basic is thus expanded are all substantives.In written documents, however, it would be possible to make use of them as adjectives by adopting the abbreviations of the Chemisehes Centralblatt, which are already known to scientists all the world over.Physics, Zoology, Botany, Geology, Medicine, Mechanics, and Commerce have all similarly been allotted their quota, and a new incentive to scientists who realize the importance of internatiorializing their technicalities is thereby provided.

International Terms

    The international aspect of the scientific vocabularies thus completed will be the object of our attention during the next three months, and the 'final lists will indicate which terms can be dispensed with (as already international) and which are necessary as intermediaries between the Minimum and the Universal. For the Minimum itself (500), as well as for the General (850), these limits have already been determined, and it only remains to differentiate between international terms which are necessary and those which are already adequately covered by Basic.
    During the past century Print and Commerce have given almost universal currency to dozens of terms of everyday occurrence. The following, for example, are sufficiently international to be immediately understood, wherever their use is required, by 90% of those concerned: Beer, Coffee, Chocolate, Gas, Radio, Post, Tea, Tobacco, University, Automobile, Bank, Cheque, Gramophone, Hotel, Passport, Piano, Restaurant, Telegram, Telephone, Theatre. Basic assumes that these 20 words are available, like the international terms of the sciences at the other end of the scale, together with the number system, proper names, and the Gazeteer. They are, of course, printed in the Key itself, and their pronunciation is included in the gramophone records which cover the whole phonetic and grammatical side of the system, but it is necessay to load the printedd Vocabulary with anything that is not a mnemonic essential. The number of such tems to be accepted in the final count is still te subject of various questionnnaires, covering also words like Alcohol, Banana, Bar, Club, Motor and Station, some of which must be further considered in connection with the internationals of science already referred to.


Bilingualism in Bengal

    Since everyone who has mastered Basic has also taken the first step towards a mastery of standard English should he desire to continue his labors, the value` of the system as a basis for all English teaching will naturally appeal to educationists both at home and abroad. Many teachers who are committed to three- and four-year courses (though with little prospect of satisfactory results even over this lengthy period) are already considering allow best to adapt their methods to the new situation.
    The energetic efforts of Professor Palmer in Japan no less than the brilliant pioneer work of Dr. West in Bengal have already drawn attention to the urgency of the problem of Bilingualism in the East. In an earlier issue we published a specimen of Professor Palmer's method of simplification, and on another page appears a striking contribution by Dr. West.
    There can be no doubt that Dr. West has found a solution for the linguistic difficulties of India, as at present officially conceived. Given a period of three to five years in which to learn from 3,000 to 5,000 of the 50,000 commonest words in English literature, his graded vocabularies do achieve their purpose, A student of five years standing will certainly acquire 1000 of the vocabulary he needs. The remaining 90% is then only a matter of assiduity, a good memory, and facilities to prosecute his labors. Moreover, if he knows the 10% thoroughly, he can already get a long way with current newspapers and the simpler masterpieces.
    But there are considerably less than a million children studying English in British India, and few even of these are likely to benefit by Dr. West's method for many years to come. Basic English therefore presents itself as an ally to such devoted labors, and as an alternative for those whose courage fails them at the thought of five years' linguistic servitude for an introduction to Graham Wallas, or even to Edgar Wallace.
    Dr. West's contribution reached us when the present issue was already otherwise almost complete for press. We may, however, take this opportunity of commenting on some notes on our last issue with which he has favoured us, and which may be included in his article should it appear elsewhere.
    The first refers to our criticism of Thorndike's Word -frequecy (10,000) list; "Thorndike might justly argue that, so far from indicating these words (selected from the very low frequencies) as useful, he has indicated them as not likely to be useful. But it is very questionable whether these lower stages indicate anything at all". With the latter sentiment we are in complete agreement; on the former we would only remark that, if the last 4,000 words of Thorndike's list are "not likely to be useful ", Dr. West would do a great service to American teachers in persuading Thorndike to state this specifically in his next edition, and therefore to save pedagogical statisticians (who at present take a very different view) long years of fruitless ingenuity, by discreetly omitting them -- until it is proved that they can " indicate anything at all ".
    Dr. West further suggests that Thorndike might retaliate on the following lines.Basic English is specifically intended for the student of English as a foreign language. The number of persons who study English with a view to making a trip to England or America is extremely small. "In evaluating the basic vocabulary we must therefore bear in mind the needs not merely of the European tourist but also of the Bengali, the Chinaman, the African, the Arab, and all the races of the world by whom English is valued as a source of ideas and knowledge not contained in their own literature, and as a common means of inter-tribal and inter-provincial communication amid the Babel of multitudinous local languages. Yet the Basic vocabulary includes such words as Camera, Cheese, Cheque, Compass, Grape, Magnet, Passport, Piano, Rabbit, Tube Worm.To take a particular instance, to the Bengali a Camera is a comparatively rare luxury, Cheese is not a common article of diet; Banks exist only in the larger towns ; Grapes are imported and very expensive ; Pianos are not used because they do not suit Indian music ; perhaps one Bengali in a million has to deal with Passports ; and Magnets, Tubes and Worms are certainly not basic items in the life of the 'Baba' --. But we look in vain for the Babu's great interests, his Pleader, Magistrate, Examination, Harmonium, and Umbrella ".
    The italics are ours. We may pass by the fact that certain of the words mentioned by Dr. West, though circulated in the provisional vocabulary submitted to our collaborators (for consideration with reference to its 10% scientific and international borderlands) have been redistributed, and have not appeared in the General Vocabulary since last autumn. The remainder we are prepared to justify, and the lines on which our rejoinder would proceed are indicated by the phrases we have italicized : -- the chief point being that Basic English is designed as a universal auxiliary, and not as a foreign, language -- though English is, of course, so regarded in India at present, both by Indians and by European teachers. Hence the criterion of utility is not always that of actual dissemination (nor yet of travel), nor can special terms in addition to test (school-test, etc) and judge (+ authority, law, etc.) be added, e.g., ' examination ' and ' magistrate ', if the latter are sufficiently covered by the equivalents already provided and the methods of substitution outlined in our previous issues.
    Before proceeding on such lines, however, we would wish any criticism to be able to take account of the Basic system as a whole. The present issue makes a further contribution to that whole, and by the time these words are printed the completed presentation will already have taken shape in book form. Meantime we recommend Dr. West's article once more to the notice of all interested in the progress of English, and append the following translation into Basic of the passage which he himself translates in his second footnote :-- 7

Simplification and Irregularity

    "The two main reasons for making English the basis of a universal language are (1) the statistical considerations set forth in our last issue, and (2) the fact that English is the only Major language in which the analytic tendency has gone far enough for purposes of simplification.
    "Inflected systems are highly resistant to simplification, and their Latin origin is still only too evident in all the Romance languages of to-day. In the course of centuries, however, most of the European speech-systems have progressed considerably in the right direction, and the analytic tendency, as we know from a passage in Suetonius, may even have been accelerated by the Emperor Augustus himself, who broke away from the ancient habits of literary elegance and obscurity by inserting directives before his nouns, thereby creating an analytic link with such inscriptions as we find already in 57 B.C. -- " Si petunia ad templum data erit ".1
    English, both in its Anglo-Saxon and its Latin derivatives, has carried the process of simplification to a point where the final step was possible ; and by the selection of its vocabulary from the word groups most adapted for universal purposes, the irregularities of form and idiom in the Basic nucleus have been reduced to negligible dimensions. The operator forms still preserve some of their inflections, the pronouns are still infected by case anomalies, a few special plurals and comparatives mar the grammatical picture, and there are certain established idioms which cannot conveniently be circumvented.
    The memorization of these irregularities is fortunately only a matter of days or even of hours ; but since we have to admit them temporarily into Basic (i.e., until such time as standard English, with its growing tendency to simplification, shall have progressed far enough to allow us to dispense with them if we so desire), what justification can be offered for their existence, which may at the same time account for their actual preservation ?
    There is an analogy here with the numbering of streets and houses in a modern city. By anyone who has driven around the suburbs in search of The Laurels, 13A Aspidistra Court Gardens, peering through the darkness at No. 8, at Catspaw Mansions, at The Chestnuts, at No. 41, and at a variety of indiscernibles, before finally turning the corner of an unsuspected mews, also known locally as Smith's Passage, the advantages of living in No. 123 West 456th Street will hardly be disputed. Yet even the best regulated system can conveniently retain certain mnemonic survivals whether they be Madison Avenue and Riverside Drive, or do and did, he and him, trousers and scissors, better and best. Provided the exceptions are not too numerous, and have a significant historical background, they may even assist the memory. This does not mean that every anomaly which Basic includes can be excused or justified ; many will doubtless pass away gradually as linguistic analogy completes its inevitable work :-- but it serves to emphasize the negligible character of the irregularities which need give rise to real regret.
   1 C.I.L. IX 3513, aped Bréal, Semantics, p. 19. If the petunia will be given to the temple.



    In other respects Basic lays special stress on symmetry and regularity wherever the mnemonic factor is involved. it is important, for example, to discover how far the position of a word in the printed scheme is significant for different types of learners. One of the methodological advantages of Basic is its symmetry as a printed system, and for visual types such serial order is often of great value as an aid to memory. Experiments are being carried out to determine how best to facilitate visualization, by displaying the vocabulary on an area at least 6 feet square, to allow of half-inch letters. The most convenient forms for such display, by epidiascope, by a magnetized alphabet, and by printing, have each their advantages in given circumstances.
    A mastery of the Vocabulary for reading purposes requires in the first place the ability to give the equivalent verbal form in the vernacular for every word in Basic. Since, however, Basic is taught with the aid both of the Panopticon, to illustrate function, of the gramophone record to profit by the further associations of tongue gesture and auditory image, and of objects and pictures to enlist the support of visual and tactile memory, it is an open question whether proficiency in speech cannot always be readily acquired in conjunction with that facility in reading and understanding which is the primary need of those who are not greatly affected by travel or travelers.
    The extreme simplicity of the resultant system, due to the economy and symmetry thus achieved, make it unnecessary for Basic to concern itself, as such, either with simplified spelling or with any attempt at phonetic reform. Those who devote them- selves to the promotion of such causes may find that Basic can serve their special purposes, but where no more than 1,000 symbols are required to attain even the highest reaches of scientific communication the wisdom of distracting public attention from the main issue is more than doubtful.

    On the theoretical side also, methodological requirements are not neglected. The Panoptic method of linguistic analysis enables word relationships to be readily visualized over a wide range.
    The Panopticon itself, in its concentric form, provides a model key to the functions of the various grammatical categories ; but in the theory of definition, in the discovery of semantic shifts, and in the technique of substitution generally, a similar diagrammatic conciseness is desirable. .

Panoptic Conjugation

    Basic English, therefore, is not only seen as a whole and at a glance by the arrangement of its vocabulary to cover the back of a sheet of notepaper, and demonstrated panoptically in so far as its word order and verbal categories are concerned, but Panoptic diagrams are available for the special study of all three angles of the Triangle of Reference -- Term, Thought and Thing.
    For the purposes of Basic English we need to know not only what other Terms can be substituted for a particular term that requires elimination, but the variations of reference, the Thoughs which it is used to symbolize, and the extent of the overlap of these different uses when we come to place theThings or referents for which each use of the term or symbol stands.
    There may be various approaches to the same things, but as a rule a different approach, defined in terms of a different definition route, will lead to a slightly or totally different set of referents.
    (1) The definition routes actually in use in the case of any particular ambiguous word can be most conveniently charted along radii starting from the word as a centre. We thus get a panoptic view of each special case of Polysemia, in terms of standard definition routes, and the circular arrangement enables us to determine with ease the type of confusion to which differences of reference are likely to give rise. The use of, or failure to use, any particular route in a given community is then a potential problem for semantics, and communication, or failure to communicate, will depend primarily on agreement as to the route selected.
    (2) But to discover how far persons using the same word though with a different definition are actually referring to the same referents another arrangement is necessary. Though the word remains at the centre, the radii are directed to other circles (representing the denotation) whose centrex are all on the periphery of the circle of reference in which the radii terminate. These circles will overlap, or dissociate, according to the actual overlaps in the fields of referents, and the measure of the failure of coincidence will also be the measure, e.g., of the liability to legal dispute. Affiliations outside the system or semantic refinements appear as deflections of orbit with dotted overlaps, or variations of volume or concentricity.
    (3) Thirdly, there is the question of substitute symbols, alternatives and abbreviations, which brings us to Elimination. The Panoptic Eliminator provides a very powerful and convenient instrument for grouping the whole material of lexicography.
    It is based in part on the theory of Definition set forth in The Meaning of Meaning. To find the referent of a given symbol from a starting point x, follow the route y. That is the formula of all definition, systematic or casuistic, the distinction between description and definition being often only a matter of the speaker's intention. The object both of description and of definition is to enable the reader to reach the referent (understand the meaning), and this can be achieved with varying degrees of conciseness and system. The most systematic form of definition, by genus and differentia, is possible only where a classificatory hierarchy has been agreed upon, and, in particular, in sciences where the defining differentia is generally accepted. Some approximation to a hierarchic arrangement with a dichotomous basis can, however, usually be achieved, though in ordinary exegesis and discussion systematic consciousness is seldom attempted. Approximate definitions are offered (either in terms of Opposition or) by inviting the inquirer to follow one of ten main routes (Symbolization, Similarity, Spatial Relation, Temporal Relation, Physical Causation, Psychological Causation, Psycho-physical causation, Relation to a mental state, Common complex relations, Legal relations).
    Of these ten routes the first has a place only in the general theory of definition. The object of definition is to locate the referent of a given symbol. We can therefore take as a starting point either a symbol which is understood, or a referent which is known. If we start with a referent we say : The symbol you are in doubt about is the name of this referent. In this case no other symbol is involved ; there is only an identification of the referent indicated, and a knowledge of naming, the definition route.
    In general, however, we start not with a referent, but with the name of a referent ; so that instead of the demonstrative ' this ' the definition of the new name is based on some word whose definition is already agreed upon, or whose referent is already known. The remaining nine routes, therefore, are all that concern us from the standpoint of panoptic elimination.
    Panoptic definitions, from this standpoint, are sets of words, each starting with the centre word, which can be substituted for the words at the periphery, its conjugates. The conjugate is here regarded as an abbreviation for the substitute words, and to find its full semantic equivalent we have to make the same use of the definition routes as in the case of any other symbol whose meaning is challenged.
    Panoptic lexicography, however, is not concerned only with the problem of definition. Its object is to group words in families, to find their conjugates. To conjugate a verb is to put it through its tricks, but any word may be put through its tricks with a view to discovering its range of derivatives and its semantic affiliations. The panoptic conjugation of a word is the chart of its conjugates, derived or affiliated. A derived conjugate of dog would be doglet, for which the actual (semantic) conjugate is puppy.
    The Panoptic eliminator shows us at the centre the word under consideration, and round the periphery the conjugates reached by various radial definition routes.
    We can then say : Given the referent of a word (dog) and any one of the routes by which it can be approached (age), there may or may not be a conjugate word (puppy) in the dictionary which is shorthand for the particular definition indicated (young dog).
    Our first task, however, is to find the conjugates, in order thereafter to substitute for them the full equivalents which their specilic defining relations demand. For this purpose we traverse the same routes as in defining, but in the opposite direction. We ask : What other word is used for this referent in this relation (= when approached along this particular route)? If any such word is in the dictionary, we then set about defining it in terms of the analysis thus indicated.
    Of the nine possible routes at our disposal, Similarity is best treated apart for reasons which are dealt with under that head ; while purely Psychological causation can be included under Psycho-physical for all practical purposes. The remaining seven may each give us more than one conjugate, since they are very general classificatory categories ; and in fact it proves desirable to expand them by the addition of Magnitude, Material, Form, Behaviour, and Use to twelve, and further to sub-divide eight of this total until we reach a total of twenty panoptic approaches (to the conjugate) in comparison with the ten of the theory of definition (when we are approaching the referent).

    The twelve main radii are then as follows :--
  1. Space. 7 . Cause (Psycho-physical).
  2. Time. 8 . Attitude.
  3. Magnitude. 9 . Behaviour.
  4. Form. 10. Use.
  5. Material. 11. Social relations.
  6. Cause (Physical). 12. Complex relations.

   Eight of these are sub-divided as already indicated: Space into Where and Whence, Time into Age and Period, Magnitude into Size and Degree, Material into Substance and State, Physical Causation into Event and Agent, Psycho-physical Causation into Mental and Sensory, Behaviour into Activity and Sex, while Social covers either Legal or Family relations.
    Eight other radial lines, two of which are bifurcate, complete the scheme.
  1 . The naming relation of Definition theory becomed the route by which our centre term itself is defined.
  2 . Similarity.
  3 . Similarity of context gives us a line for metaphor.
  4 . The opposite or negation of any name may give rise to a conjugate.
  5 . Derivatives in all forms require a special line with two branches.
  6 . Pluralization in all its forms also require a line with two branches.
  7 . Technical terms and scientific symbols give us synonyms which may hover on the edge of the dictionary.
  8 . We may complete the picture by recording various equivalents of the centre word in other languages.

    Neglecting for the moment the question of the parts of its referent, the full conjugation of any word thus involves the answering of 30 separate questions.
    In the case of Dog, for example, the following conjugates immediately present themselves :--
      In or from a particular place (Alsatian, Pekinese).
      Of a particular age (puppy).
      Emotively considered (cur).
      Behaving in a certain way (retriever, setter).
      Used for a particular purpose (hound).
      Of a given sex (bitch).
And in distributing these panoptically (viz., under 1, 3, 10, 15, 16 18), we note at once, in comparing them, e.g., with the Cat conjugates, that language adequately epitomizes the many uses of the dog in contrast with the single feline function (mouser). We also note the numerous blanks which the dog shares with all animal organisms ; no special terms are required for its physical or psychological causes, its legal relations, or its opposite.
    If now we select a word which is likely to have the maximum number of conjugates, Man provides a good example. We find, of course, no term for a man in virtue of the material he is made of, or qua psychological cause, but a certain state of that material elicits the term corpse. We can, however, refer to an inmate (a man in a certain place), a Southerner (from a certain place), an Octogenarian (of a certain age), an Elizabethan (of a certain period), a Cro-Magnon (of a certain shape), a dwarf (of a certain size), a centaur (to a certain extent), a friend (emotively considered), a beau (causing certain mental reactions), a negro (causing certain sensory impressions), a still-born (caused by certain events), a father (a physical agent), a soldier (use or purpose), a lover (behaviour), a male (sex), a brother (family relation), a tenant (legal relation).
    For purposes of elimination the formula runs as follows ; Given the word in the centre and the linguistic means of covering the radial definition route, the conjugate at the periphery can be dispensed with.
    The elimination formula for Basic English is, therefore ; Given the word in the center, and the means of covering the radial definition route in not more than nine other words, then the conjugate at the periphery can be eliminated.
    In practice, the elimination of any particular word is not always desirable. There are four main overriding considerations which may determine its retention ; the awkwardness of the substitute phase, the frequency of the reprieved word's occurrence, the utility of its derivatives, or of the metaphor or specialization which it can provide, and finally the avoidance of homophones which its use may facilitate in some other group of conjugates.
    Having determined our conjugates on any given panoptic chart, we can ask of each in turn : Can this conjugate be eliminated by all equivalent of ten words or less, which would form a definition of it along the route in question ? The resultant definitions constitute our first-order substitutes ; the nucleus of the Dictionary of Basic English , and since the place of the Basic Words themselves in a systematic classification of the sciences has also been charted, any word which does not appear as a conjugate must be eliminated by discovering a substitute in relation to the vocabulary as a whole, including metaphors and the first order substitutes already at our disposal.
    Usually when we ask what other name is given to a referent when it is viewed from a particular angle, we get a conjugate which applies only to the referent with that particular definition, as when some dogs in virtue of their youth are called Puppies. Sometimes the range is the same, as with man and male. Sometimes the conjugate has a wider application than to the referent in question ; thus, when money is of a particular material it is called gold, but not all gold is money.
    In the last case the other uses of the conjugate must be covered before its elimination is lexicographically satisfactory, though from the practical standpoint of Basic we must often be content with a rough approximation. It is therefore important to test every word on the Panoptic Eliminator, since there is no theoretical criterion of actual usage.
    By way of concluding these preliminary observations, a few notes on the Chart as it finally emerges may help to elucidate the functions of the various radial lines.
    Of the twenty possibilities for conjugates proper the first seven explain themselves, except that No 5, besides covering the shapes, e.g.,of domestic utensils, is also useful for all that has been blanketed by the caption Gestalt. Some names are given in virtue of the material substance (8) of a referent, as when a noise-making instruments are called brasses, others in virtue of the states of that substance (9), as when a man becomes a corpse. Attitude (10) covers the whole of the emotive nomenclature which Basic contrives to adumbrate to circumvent, or to relegate to literature, where its resources fail to cope with the psychological nuance involved. Fortunately, however, many people, when a party eventually goes home, actually go only to their respective houses or hotels , and with the gradual decline of family life one may eventually find oneself chez sol in almost any maison.
    Our attitudes and emotions as crystall.ized in such symbolic forms must be distinguished from the mental states (la) and sensations (12) which specifically give rise to terms such as beautiful or albino, whether the referent be named qua causing or caused by the said impressions. Similarly, either events and processes or persons and things may give rise to conjugates both as causes and effects.
    The behavior of anything taken in the widest sense of activity or function (15), with a special branch for sex-function1 (16), is conveniently distinguished from the use (17) to which any object is put, the purpose for which it is used. Under social relations family relationships(l8), whereby a man becomes a husband or brother, may be distinguished from legal (19), whereby he appears as a tenant or a Plaintiff. Finally a variety of complex relations are best dealt with, on occasion, at the linguistic level in which they occur, though it is always necessary to be assured of their approximate analysis and translation of any fiction before taking advantage of such a procedure.
    In general, it may be remarked that complex conjugates are often readily referable to one or other of the other twenty-nine stations, with an indication by number of the other routes involved. There may also frequently be a choice of routes, but no confusion need arise from the more or less arbitrary selection of one of these, if the others are kept in mind for purposes of cross-reference.
  1   Sex as a prolific generator of linguistic abbreviations with which Basic can dispense requires a special line. The fact that the females of many animal species can be unambiguously designated by two words instead of one, where the name of the male is available, makes it unnecessary to resort to sub- stitutes in terms of shape or function. Family relationships, where they are not of legal origin, are also in a peculiar position, and though limited in number can be treated more conveniently in the social than in the causal group.

    Pluralization.  Ordinary language is rich in extra terms for pluralization. The Quantification may here be purely numerical as when more than one cow == kine ; but there is usually some further implication such as degree of scatter ( pack), or family consideration (litter), in the case of dogs -- where both terms are shared by other animals (wolves and pigs)--or a reference to the housing problem (kennel)-- where the canine equivalent of ' stud ' provides a specifically canine conjugate. Under this heading, too, come collective terms such as humanity or mankind when used for the totality of men.
    Milieu.  Some equivalents will, of course, represent merely the language of a particular group, class, or milieu, or even the circumstances in which the word is used (ritual) .
    When the equivalent is a technical term, due to the consideration of the referent from the angle of some particular group of scientists, one of the standard routes is usually as much in evidence as in cases where the hunting fraternity has been responsible for the term hound ; or again we may be concerned with indications of an emotional attitude. Often, however, we are confronted by the virtual equivalent of another dialect, approximating by degrees to the vocabularies of foreign languages.
    Milieu, in the latter sense, requires a special line of its own (Translation), though it might less conveniently be regarded as an extension of the Spatial line -- the Where being then as much among children or thieves as among Lancastrians, Eskimos, or French. The same applies to technical terms and scientific symbols.
    Parts.  In addition to the conjugates of a word which can be substituted for it in a particular context, there are those which are directly affiliated to it in other connections. Chief among these are the names of the parts of the referent for which it stands. We ask : "Is there any special name for any part of this referent ?" In the case of a building, we then get chimney, room, etc. , in the case of a body we get leg, tail, etc. These (partitive) conjugates may be conveniently inscribed in the circle at the centre of the diagram where the name itself appears. One of these parts' may further give rise to a special term under circumstances such as those in which part of a dead sheep becomes mutton (whereas part of a dead hen reappears on the menu as chicken).
    Derivatives.  Similarly as regards other terms peculiar to a particular referent, as when mew is defined as the noise made by a disgruntled cat, though it gives rise to no special name for a cat such as might have made mewer a conjugate comparable with cuckoo (woodpecker, hunter). It is curious that so few animals are names after their characteristics noises, though moo-cow is typical of infantile linguistic efforts in this direction.
    A special radial extension off derivative proper to convenient for these, since it is a matter of linguistic chance thether an actual derivative mannny is formed from man, correspondig to doggy, or whether masculine, virile, human (corresponding to canine) takes its place. In so far as handsome is applied only to men, it may also appear provisionally in this extension of the conjugates of man ; just as kennel, the unique equivalent for 'dog-house' is conveniently related to dog no less than to its primary form, house. Here, too, is the place for mutton. Cross-references for lexicographical purposes are thus facilitated, and alternative substitutes may sometimes suggest themselves.

The Diagram of Operators

    Such being the rationale of conjugation, it is clear that panoptic definition in combination with the pictorial method may be a powerful aid to the understanding of Meaning in all its forms. In other cases the use of diagrams is also indicated.
    The technique of verb elimination, as outlined in our issue of July, 1929, depends partly on the analysis of verb forms into operators and directives. The diagram of directives there set forth is complementary to that on the following page, wherein the operators are portrayed. To those of our readers who have followed us so far it explains itself ; for beginners, with a few elucidatory paragraphs it proves far more effective than any purely verbal method of exegesis. The oppositional factor gives us seem as a sort of m1rror-image of be ; while as opposed to (Come here and) Keep (putting coal on the fire) we have (Go away and) Let, etc. Say, See, and Send, which also appear in the general vocabulary with the operators, are treated as analogical extras, since they can usually be circumvented by idiomatic alternatives.

    But it is not only in its bearing on the operators that the oppositional factor requires elucidation. The more intricate problems of opposition and negation in relation to the theory of Panoptic definition have necessitated a separate and prolonged inquiry, the main results of which appear in the article by Adelyne More, printed immediately after these notes. It is the privilege of a lady to rush in where angels have feared to re-tune their harp strings, and the labors of nearly three years on one of the most difficult topics in linguistic psychology have thus been accorded provisional publicity.



Aristotle's Obsession

    The subject itself has a long and resectable history, for Aristotle himself, as Tarde first pointed out, was obsessed by the problem of opposition which appears in different forms in all of his works, though the treatise which we devoted to it has not survived.
    (skip nine pages.)

The First Modern Treatment

    The first modern treatment of Opposition was a direct outcome . . .
. . .
22     The Sociological Approach
    The outlook of Tarde is primarily social, and his sociology is . . .
. . .


Tarde's Classification

    In his more detailed treatment of opposition1 Tarde attemps a systematic classification.
. . .


The Zero Criterion

    Most scientists would agree with Renouvier's view that the only . . .
. . .

A Fresh Start

    It is significant that Tarde's excusions into this uncharted region attracted little attention either in England or on the continent, in spite of its author's world-wide reputation. It would indeed, be instructive to follow the comment to which it gave rise, with a view to discovering any seeds ruitfully planted. This is due in part to Tarde's failure to render his conclusions applicable to anything beyond sociological discussion, and in part to his somewhat superficial treatment of the Cut and Scale ; but more particularly to the remoteness of the whole discussion from the linguistic problems which provide it with these practical orientation.
    The way is therefore open for a fresh start, and in the following article an attemp has been made to cover the entire verbal field with which Definition and Substitution are alike concerned.


Logical, Psycological, and Orthological

By Adelyne More
Author of "Militarism versus Feminism" and "Fecundity vs Civilization"

    The linguistic aspect of the general problem of Opposition has been curiously neglected by those whom it should most concern. Panoptic definition foreces us to the view it in a new light and demands a solution before we can proceed.
    What sorts of words can be said to have opposites in the ordinary use of the term and why? . . .
    . . . ( 23 pages )



by Michael West, MA, D.Ph. (Oxon)
Principal, the Teacher's College, Dacca,

    In our last issue we briefly discussed the work of Dr. Michael West . . .

    The scene is the cell of the Abbe Faria in the Prison of Chateayd'. The persons present are the Abbe and Edmond Dantes (later to befome Count of Monte Cristo).  . . .
    . . . ( 11 pages ) . . .
. . . been discussed and illustated elsewhere. 1
  1. Discussed in Language in Education (Longmans, 1929) ; illustrated in New Method Compositions, especially Books 4 and 5.

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