The Basic Teacher
STEP 21 . Summer Time
||loss||same -- different|
|division||plough , plow |
1 . Nouns
The plural form of sheep is the same as the singular.
2 . Adjectives
Same is always preceded by the except in the rare cases where it is qualified by a pointing or possessive adjective. When it is used with a descriptive adjective, the descriptive adjective follow it. It has a pronoun use.
Same clearly implies a comparison, which may be expressed by adding an as-statement.
The cow gives the same amount of milk every day.
Come again at the same time.
These two berries have the same bitter taste.
This same strange light was seen in the sky last week.
These two books are not the same.
When one sheep goes in the river, the others do the same.
This cow gives the same amount of milk as the other.
Come again at the same time as you did yesterday.
3 . Operators
Would and might are the Past Forms of will and may. They have two uses :
(a) In dependent statements which have to agree in tense with a main statement that is a Past Tense.
He says that he will send a protest. }
(b) In stating something as the effect of a condition which may be expressed by an if-statement in the Past Tense.
He said that he would send a protest. }
he said that this cow would give more milk than the others
Did you say that the clock might be wrong ?
I saw that the animal would get violent.
The man saw a place where the horses might get across the river.
He had had no hope that he would get such a good price for the horse.
We went to the farm when the men might be there.
I put the plow where it would not get wet.
He was angry because he would not be free till the end of the year.
An if-statement is put in the Simple Past when the condition it names, though it concerns the present or the future, is contrary to fact, or regarded as improvable, or put forward as a mere supposition, without any suggestion of its truth or falsity.
You would get a higher price for your farm if it had a better house.
An if-statement is put in the tense using had as an auxiliary when the condition it expresses applies to the past and is known not to have been fulfilled. When the statement giving the effect or consequence applies to the past, the complex forms would have and might have must be used.
If he let the cow out, it might get into our garden.
If a horse got on the roof, how would it get down ?
She might have less trouble with her digestion she took more milk.
If you went to the moon, you would see some strange things.
If he had not done the same thing again (but he did) I would not be so angry (now).
These are the only uses of would and might except for certain constructions which will be met in more advanced reading and are, in fact, disguised conditional (for example, I would have been able to do it with your help -- that is, if I had your help). They are never used except in dependent statements or statements of effect. they may sometimes appear to be used otherwise, but that is only because some part of the sentence is understood without being expressed.
If he had not done the same thing again, I would not have been so angry (then).
I might have given him a different answer if he had been older.
"What answer did he give ?" "He gave the answer that) He would not come."
"What would you do if he sent for you?" "(If he did) I would go."
Would you have done what I did ?" (That is, if you had been me, if the chance had been given you.)
4 . Adverbs
The adverb how has an important second use as an adverb of degree before adjectives and adverbs. Its sense is 'to what degree' and in this second use, as in its root use, it is both an interrogative and a relative adverb.
I see how wrong I am. (== I see the degree to which I am wrong)
His behaviour tonight was a sign of how angry he was.
How near to the animal did you go ?.
How. small are the pigs ?
It was clear how little respect hey had for him.
Except when used with much and little, how can qualify an adjective preceding a noun only when the noun is qualified by a(n), and in this case the usual order is reversed and a(n) follows the adjective.
How true an account did he give ?
In how short a time will the invention be ready ?
How cheap a watch did he get ?
5 . Interrogative Words used as Conjunctions.
All the words used both as interrogatives dn as relative (what, who, which, where, when, how, why) have a special use, parallel in the use ofthat, after, say, see, etc., to introduce dependent statements. In this use, as will be seen from the examples, they combine their relative and interrogative functions.
Make him say whom he took to the farm.
did you see which cows were in the field ?
I see what they are doing.
I have no idea where the plow is.
Say when you will be ready.
She didn't see how the horse got out.
The manager said why the things were not ready.
Summer Time is an invention for giving us another hour of daylight while we are wake. In a great number of countries most persons get up and go to bed in the dark in winter. In summer they still go to bed some hours after dark, but they do not get up till the sun is quite high in the sky. This is a great waste of daylight.
Someone had the bright idea that if, in those countries, one got up an hour earlier and went to bed an hour earlier, one would have another hour of daylight at the end of the day. It would give most of those who do work in offices the chance of having some outdoor amusement when they got away from their work. The argument was that an increase of daylight would make everyone healthier.
But for most of us, getting up an hour earlier is not a pleasure, and we are not very ready to go to bed an hour earlier at night. We have no desire to make sudden changes in our behaviour. The value of Summer Time is that it makes us seem to be getting up later then we are. Time is a thing not under our control, but we have control of our watches and clocks,. and hours, minutes, and seconds are divisions of time which we ourselves have made. So we are free to put the hands of the clock forward to an hour later in summer and to put them back when the winter comes again. When we make the change to Summer Time, we get up at a different time by the sun, but our clocks say we are getting up at the same time as we did before, and that is a help to us. It is an example of how completely most men and women are the servants of language. If you give the same name to different things, they seem to be the same thing The time for us is what our clocks say it is, and we might be less ready to get up in the summer if our clocks ere not wrong.
Summer Time was not given approval by everyone. The chief protests were made by persons who do work on farms, to whom more daylight give little chance for more play. Getting up an hour earlier is worse for them than for most of us. They get up very early at all times of the year and are among their cows, pigs, sheep, and goats before you or I are awake. Then they go out to the fields with their ploughs and horses or to do their other work of the farm. When the clock is put forward, it makes them get out of bed before the sun is up. Most of them go to bed earlier, but some of them do not get enough sleep, because one does not readily go to sleep while there is still sunlight outside. The loss of sleep in the summer makes them tired.
This was not the only reason why the men on the farms were against Summer Time. They said that it was not natural and that the earlier start might be bad for the animals. They said that the cows would give a smaller amount of milk and that some of the animals might have trouble with their digestion if they suddenly got their food at a different time. These men were not completely right. There is frequently trouble on a farm when the clocks are put forward or back, but only for a short time, and it is not as great as some said it might be.
Clearly, Summer Time has less value for persons in the country than it has for men and women in the towns. On the other hand, there are very god reasons for making all of us put our clocks forward together. If the time in the country was different to the time in the towns, one might go on a journey and get to the end of it before one had made a start !
The change to and from Summer Time is made in the early hours of the morning, but most persons put their watches and clocks back or forward before they go to bed that night. Then, when they get up, they see the right time. Naturally, when the clocks go forward the first morning is the worst, and when they go back the first morning is the best, because everyone who did not go to bed later then night before gets another hour of sleep.
daylight : This is the general term for the light of day as opposed to darkness. The golden light produced when the sun is visible is sunlight. The compounds moonlight and starlight are also formed.
a great number :: an amount of units, as well as the figure or figures representing it, is a number.
the dark : Dark is used as a noun, with the in front of it, for the condition of being without light.
most persons : } Most may be used either as an adjective or as a pronoun with of, in the
most of those : } sense of almost all. Note that, in this use, it is never preceded by the, and that there is no similar use of least.
in winter : The is often omitted before the names of the seasons when talking about them in a general way. It may similarly be omitted before day, night, and morning, except to the uses previously noted with in. (Morning is a good time for work.)
the bright idea : Bright here means 'clever'.
outdoor amusement : Outdoor == in the open air, not under a roof. The opposite of outdoor is indoor.. -- Amusement is used here for 'entertainment' (entertainment frequently being of a kind that produces a feeling of amusement).
the argument was that : The word argument is used for a chain of reasoning for or against something, such as makes up on side of an argument.
under our control: } By an obvious metaphor, we say that things are under someone's
control of : } control (or the control of someone) and that we have control over them.
We may also have control of them. Control over generally carries with it the idea of the exercise of some sort of authority. Over and under are used with other similar words expressing command and so on.
seconds : A second is 1/60th of a minute.
free to put : Note that free may be followed by to plus an operator. One is free to do some particular thing when nothing keeps one from doing it, just as one is free in general when one is under no personal restraint.
hands of the clock : Hands are frequently used for pointing, and the hands (or pointers) on the face of a clock or watch point to the time.
a help : A help is here a thing which gives help. Compare with the similar expansions of surprise and pleasure.
Summer Time was not given approval : We have seen that, when a statement is put into the Passive Form, the object of the statement normally becomes the subject. In the case of give and send, however, which can dispense with to before the indirect object, this indirect object may become the subject of a statement in the Passive. Thus we may say either Approval (direct object) was given to Summer Time by everyone or (as here) Summer Time (indirect object) was given approval by everyone.
protests were made : Make is the operator used with protest.
when the clock is put forward : That is, when the hands of the clock are put forward.
the sun is up : The sun comes up (into the sky) when it rises, and when it has risen, it is up.
readily : There is an obvious association between the conditions of being ready and that of being quick or prompt, which, in turn suggests encountering no difficulty. So we talk of a ready answer (given without hesitation), and the adverb readily comes to mean 'promptly, without difficulty' ; it is never used in the send of 'preparedly'.
the only reason : Note this adjectival use of only, after the or a possessive adjective, giving the sense of 'the one or more indicated, there being no others(s)'.
these men were right: Right is the opposite of wrong, no doubt because the right hand is generally the right hand with which to do things. The adjectives right and wrong are used both of statements, etc., and of the persons or instruments that make them.
naturally : By expansion, the adjective natural means 'not surprising, as one would suppose' and the adverb here corresponds with this sense. It is never used at the beginning of a statement except in this sense.
on the other hand : an idiomatic phrase used when putting forward a point contrasting with or offsetting what has been said before. We say, on the one hand . . . , on the other hand . . . when putting facts for and against something.
1 . Write as many sentences in Basic as you can describing what you see in the picture on the previous page and bring as many new words as possible.
2 . Put these sentences into the Past Tense.
(a) He might not say who will have control of the farm after his death..
3 . Write two sentences containing the word would and two containing the word might..
(b) My opinion is that the goats may get out through that hole in the wall.
(c) If the boy has a look at his watch he will see that he is late.
(d) Young persons will be healthier if they get more time for play.
(e) If she takes a glass of milk before she goes to bed she may go to sleep more quickly.
4 . Use each of these words in two different senses : bright , number , right , amusement , second , hand , argument.
5 . Fill in the blanks in these sentences.
(a) There was no light, so they had their meal _____ _____ _____.
(b) It will be cold when the sun _____ _____.
(c) Most of the work of the farm is _____ the managers's control.
(d) _____ early was the horse given its meal ?
(e) We would get there more quickly if we went by train. _____ _____ _____
hand, we would see more of the country if we went on horses.
6. Make a list of the different divisions of time.
7 . Translate into Basic :
8. Answer in Basic :
(a) What is Summer Time?
(b) What are we free to do with watches and clocks?
(c) What is the value of Summer Time?
(d) Give an example of how we are the servants of language.
(e) Who did the chief protests come from?
(f) Why do some persons who do work on farms not get enough sleep in summer?
(g) What are they doing before you and I are awake?
(h) What did they say that the change to Summer Time might do to the cows?
(i) Why did most persons put the hands of their clocks back or forward the night before the change to or from Summer Time?
< Step 20
Step 22 >
1 . Nouns
||hard -- soft ||
|brain||tomorrow -- yesterday|
Trousers has only a plural form and is used as a plural even when only one garment is being talked about.
I will take off these trousers because they are wet.
COMPLEX TENSES, ETC.
This step bring us to the final stage in mastering the operators. You know all the different forms of the operators and the auxiliaries, and you are familiar with the ways in which these are combined to form complex tenses and so on. The following example will remind you of the combinations that have been used in previous Steps and provide models for further combinations on the same lines, which will now present no difficulty.
I have been putting my shirts in the drawer.
He had a sudden fear that he had been saying something foolish.
The shirts have been put in the drawer.
I saw from their faces that something foolish had been said.
His toes will be getting warm by the fire while he is waiting.
He said that the committee would be having a discussion for some hours.
She may be making his socks.
I had an idea that she might be giving me a false account of these events.
A small part of the brain will be taken out.
He said that the new rules would be made by the committee.
Holes may be made in one's socks quite quickly.
They said that a more complete account might be given later.
The boat will have gone before you get back.
I would have made my purpose clear if you had given me a chance.
The potatoes were soft, so she may have given them to the pigs.
The plants might have come up more quickly if the earth had not been so hard.
In another minute the boat will have been going in the same direction for an hour.
He would have been getting a very different punishment if I had not said something to the manager.
The noises in the street may have been keeping the baby awake.
At the time when he might have been giving some help on the farm he was dong nothing.
The boat will have been taken away by the current before you get back.
A different punishment would have been given to the man if I had not said something to the manager.
The baby may have been kept awake by the noises in the street.
She said that help might have been given earlier if you had sent a letter to her friend.
The rules seem to have been made by a very foolish person.
He seemed to have had the same impulse before.
To have seen these things is to have had an education.
Having had a drink, he went to bed.
As will be seen from the above examples, to followed by an operator is replaced by to have followed by the form of the operator used with this auxiliary (to have done, etc.), when referring to an act completed before the time indicated by the main statements. Having done, etc., similarly replaces doing etc.
In all complex tenses, the position of not is after the first auxiliary. Similarly, questions are formed by changing the order of the subject and the first auxiliary.
He said that the committee would not be having a discussion then.
The boat will not have gone before you get back.
The baby may not have been kept awake by the noises in the street.
Has he been putting his shirts in the drawer ?
May she be making his socks ?
Will the boat have been taken away by the current before I get back ?
May he not have taken all the soft collars with him?
Has the purpose of the punishment not (or hasn't the purpose of the punishment) been made clear to the boys?
Three new constructions complete our survey of the operator system.
When talking of something as intended or expected, especially in the near future, we frequently use some tense of be followed by going before to and the root form of an operator. (The underlying idea is that by arrangement, or intention, or force of circumstances, the first step to the performance of the act, etc., has been taken -- we are already 'on the way to' something we are going to do, etc.)
I am going to put on a white collar this morning.
He says that he is going to makea protest.
She said that she was going to give the old woman a softer cushion.
There is going to be rain today.
she is going to get a surprise when she sees this.
It is going to be warm tomorrow.
The man was going to be put in prison, but he got away.
I have been going to put that question for a long time.
To indicate necessity or compulsion, we use the operator have followed by to and an operator.
Something has to get the water from the river.
I had to give the boys a punishment.
He will have to have some new trousers.
The work has to be done today.
There will have to be a meeting of the committee.
Observe the difference between these two constructions :
I have work to do. (There is work to be done by me.)
I have to do work. (I must do work.)
To Indicate that something is destined, planned, or commanded to take place,we use the operator be followed by to and an operator
This decision was to be the start of great changes in education.
The houses are to be ready tomorrow.
Your punishment is that you are to go to be dearly.
3 . Adverbs
The adverbs of time yesterday and tomorrow form a group with the compound word today. Like today, they may be used as nouns.
My brain was clearer yesterday than it is today.
Yesterday was our last day in the country.
They may make a new rule tomorrow.
Tomorrow never comes.
Even is used to emphasize something as being extreme or as remarkable in going beyond what might be expected. It may qualify as statement, as operator, a noun, an adjective, or an adverb, and, like only, it always comes before whatever it qualifies.
This is a bad picture, but that is even worse.
(remarkable though it is that anything could be worse)
He made her do all the work and sometimes he even gave her blows.
The girl did not even see him yesterday.
Even his fear of punishment did not keep him from taking the money.
She was young and even beautiful but she had no men friends.
The protest was made loudly and even violently.
His mother was at his side even before he gave a cry for help.
Even if you put me in prison, I will not say where my friends are.
Even a good judge of horses may sometimes be wrong.
Not even with an affirmative operator may replace even with a negative operator.
Not even his fear of punishment kept him from taking the money.
Suitable adverbs of manner (including well) may qualify adjectives, and are, for this purpose, put before them.
This collar is completely different.
This made my father violently angry.
The shirts are well made.1
1. Well an be used in this way with adjectives indicating a condition resulting from undergoing a process of which we shall have more examples later.
4 . Conjunctions
Though introduces a dependent statement p;putting forward some fact opposed to the fact given by the main statement, but in spite of which the main statement is true.
My brain is tired though my body is not.
Though she had an impulse to get up and go out of the room, she kept her seat.
1 . Write a description in Basic of what you see in the picture, bringing in as many new words as possible.
2 . Put the right tense of the operator in the following sentences. The root form of the first auxiliary and the operator are given in brackets.
(a) He (will, have) an impulse to take the money if no one had been in the room.
(b) He had a fear that his old shirts (may, give) to someone when he was away.
(c) When I see my sister tomorrow she (will, get) the letter I sent to her yesterday.
(d) Do not come at the same time tomorrow because we (will, have) our meal then.
(e) They said that the ship (may, go) in the wrong direction when it went down.
(f) If the boxes had been read they (will, take) yesterday.
3 . Change the following sentences into questions, giving the contracted and the uncontracted form in the case of negatives :
(a) She might have had more fear if her baby had been with her.
(b) The animal had not been going against the current.
(c) He may have been getting a knowledge of the language.
(d) I would not have seen the trousers even if they had been on the bed.
(e) The work which he is doing has been making his brain tired.
(f) Help would not have been given to him for such a purpose if he had gone to the committee.
4 . Complete these sentences by putting even, only, but, though, or if into the blanks :
(a) The smoke still comes out ______ some paper has been put into the hole.
(b) They were unable to see through the mist ___ they got the ship into the harbor.
(c) ____ this small print is quite clear.
(d) She would not have taken an umbrella ____ ____ the weather had been wet.
(e) _____ they were not able to see through the mist they got the ship into the harbor.
(f) _____ the knowledge that acid fruit is bad for the digestion kept her from taking more.
(g) No one will go on the grass ____ you put a rail round it.
(h) _____ the knowledge that acid fruit would give her a pain did not keep her from taking more.
(i) He said nothing about this idea ____ to his dearest friends.
(j) The decision was made ____ after a long discussion.
5 . Make the following into sentences :
(a) might be given
(b) will have been said
(c) might have been made
(d) had been put
(e) may have been seen
(f) seems to have been done
6 . Translate into Basic :
< Step 21
Step 23 >