Original . You may see this by taking a
lighted candle,16 and putting it in the sun so as to get its shadow thrown on a piece of paper. How remarkable it is that that thing which is light enough to produce shadows of other objects can be made to throw17 its own shadow on a piece of white paper or card, so that you can actually see streaming round the flame something which is not part of the flame, but is ascending and drawing the flame upward. Now I am going to imitate the sunlight by applying the voltaic battery to the electric lamp. You now see our sun and its great luminosity; and by placing a candle between it and the screen, we get the shadow of the flame. You observe the shadow of the candle and of the wick;
then there is a darkish part, as represented in the diagram, and then a part which is more distinct. Curiously enough, however, what we see in the shadow as the darkest part of the flame is, in reality, the brightest part; and here you see streaming upward the ascending current of hot air, as shown fly Hooker, which draws out the flame, supplies it with air, and cools the sides of the cup of melted fuel.
I can give you here a little further illustration, for the purpose of showing you how flame goes up or down according to the current. I have here a flame -- it is not a candle flame -- but you can, no doubt, by this time generalize enough to be able to compare one thing with another; what I am about to do is to change the ascending current that takes the flame upward into a descending current. This I can easily do by the little apparatus you see before me. The flame, as I have said, is not a candle flame, but it is produced by alcohol,18 so that it shall not smoke too much. I will also color the flame with another substance, * so that you may trace its course; for, with the spirit alone, you could hardly see well enough to have the opportunity of tracing its direction. By lighting this spirit of wine we have then a flame produced, and you observe that when held in the air it naturally goes upward. You understand now, easily enough, why flames go up under ordinary circumstances: it is because of the draught of air by which the combustion is formed. But now, by blowing the flame down, you see I am enabled to make it go downward into this little chimney,19 the direction of the current being changed. Before we have concluded this course of lectures we shall show you a lamp in which the flame goes up and the smoke goes down, or the flame goes down and the smoke goes up. You see, then, that we have the power in this way of varying the flame in different directions. -- Michael Faraday, The Chemical History of a Candle, Harper, 1861, pp. 31-34.
* The alcohol had chloride of copper dissolved in it : this produces a beautiful green flame.
Basic . You may see this by taking a lighted candle16 and putting it in the sun so that its form may be seen on a bit of paper. How surprising it is that a thing which gives enough light to make shades of other things, will, under some conditions, give17 a shade itself on a bit of white paper or card; so that you are able to see streaming round the flame something which is not part of the flame, but which is going up and stretching the flame out. Now I am going to make something like sunlight by turning on the electric light. You now see our sun and its great light-giving power; and by putting a candle between it and a bit of cardboard, we get a shade of the flame. You see the form of the candle and the cotton. Then there is a dark part, as you see in the picture, and then a part which is clearer. It may seem surprising, but what we see in the shade as the darkest part of the flame is, in fact the brightest part; and here you see the current of heated air streaming up (as in Hooker's picture), stretching out the flame, giving it air and keeping cold the sides of the cup of liquid fat.
I will give you here another example, to let you see how the flame goes up or down when the current is moved up or down. I have here a flame -- it is not a candle flame -- but you have, no doubt, by this time, enough general ideas to make a' comparison between one thing and another. What am going to do is to make the up-going current which takes the flame up into a down-going current. I am able to do this by using the apparatus you see in front of me. The flame, as I have said, is not a candle flame, but it is produced by alcohol18 (C2H5OH), which will not give so much smoke. In addition, I will put another substance * into the flame to give it color, so that you may see the direction it takes: with alcohol only you would not see well enough the direction it takes. By putting a light to this alcohol we have got a flame; and it naturally goes up in the air. It is clear to you now why flames go up under normal conditions -- it is because of the current of air formed while burning is going on. But now, by blowing on it, the flame is sent down into the tube19 -- because the direction of the current has been changed. You see, then, that in this way we are able to make the flame go in different directions. -- Michael Faraday, The Chemical History of a Candle put into Basic by Phyllis Rossiter, Kegan Paul, 1933, pp. 27-29.
* The alcohol had copper chloride (CuCl2) in it. This makes the flame a beautiful green color.
- - - - -"On Being the Right Size" by J. B. S. Haldane
16 . Candle. As naming the subject matter of the book, a definition of this word has been given early.
17 . It is a nice question whether the source of the light or the occulting object throws the shadow. This reads as though the candle did both at once. Basic escapes the problem with the word give.
18 . Note that the term is kept in the Basic version with Its chemical formula added. Alcohol is one of the few science words Included on the International list.
19 . Pipe would have done for the general readers, but young chemists-to-be may well learn the word tube. It is part of the general science vocabulary.
Original . Of course tall land animal, have other difficulties. 'They have to pump their blood to greater heights than a man and, therefore; require a larger blood pressure and tougher blood-vessels. A great many men die from burst arteries, especially in the brain, and this danger is still greater for an elephant20 or a giraffe.21 But animals of all kinds find difficulties in size for the following reason. A typical small animal, say a microscopic22 worm or rotifer, has a smooth skin through which all the oxygen it requires can soak in, a straight gut with sufficient surface to absorb its food, and a simple kidney.23 Increase its dimensions tenfold in every direction, and its weight is increased a thousand times, so that if it is to use its muscles as efficiently as its miniature counterpart, it will need a thousand times as much food and oxygen per day and will excrete a thousand times as much of waste products.
Now if its shape is unaltered its surface will be increased only a hundredfold, and ten times as much oxygen must enter per minute through each square millimetre of skin, ten times as much food through each square millimetre of intestine. When a limit is reached to their absorptive powers their surface has to be increased by some special device. For example, a part of the skin may be drawn out into tufts to make gills23 or pushed in to make lungs, 23 thus increasing the oxygen-absorbing surface in proportion to the animal's bulk. A man, for example, has a hundred square yards of lung. Similarly, the gut, instead of being smooth and straight, becomes coiled and develops a velvety surface, and other organs increase in complication. The higher animals are not larger than the lower because they are more complicated. They are more complicated because they are larger. Just the same is true of plants. The simplest plants, such as the green algae growing in stagnant water or on the bark of trees, are mere round cells. The higher plants increase their surface by putting out leaves and roots. Comparative anatomy is largely the story of the struggle to increase surface in proportion to volume. -- J. B. S. Haldane, "On Being the Right Size," in Possible Worlds, Harper, pp. 22-23.
Basic . Naturally, tall land animals have other troubles. Their blood has to be forced up higher than a man's so they have to have a greater force of blood and stronger blood-vessels. Death is caused in a great number of men by the bursting of blood-vessels, specially in the brain, and no doubt this danger is even greater for an elephant20 or a giraffe.21 But animals of all sorts have troubles about size, for another reason. A representative small animal, say a worm so small that it is only possible to see it with a microscope,22 has a smooth skin through which all the necessary oxygen (O2) goes, a straight stomach-pipe which will take in all the necessary food, and a simple kidney.23
Make it ten times greater in every direction, and its weight is increased a thousand times, so that if it is to make as good use of its muscles as it did before, it has to take in a thousand times as much food and oxygen in a day and
give out a thousand times as much waste material.
But if its form is not changed, its skin will be only a hundred times greater, and ten times as much oxygen will have to get through every square millimeter of skin every minute, and ten times as much food through every square millimeter of wall of the digestion pipe. When it gets to the limit of what the body-structure is able to take up in this way, its size has to be increased by some special adjustment. For example, a part of the skin may be pulled out to make the breathing-parts of fishes,23 or pushed in to make the breathing-parts23 of land animals, so that the animal is able to take in more oxygen in relation to its size. A man, for example, has a hundred square yards of breathing apparatus. In the same way, the stomach-wall, at first smooth and straight, gets twisted round and round and becomes rough, and other parts become complex. The higher animals are not greater in size than the lower because they are more complex. They are more complex because they are greater in size. And the same is true of plants. The simplest plants, such as the very small green ones living in. quiet water or on the outside of trees, are no more than round units of living substance. The higher plants make their outside part greater in relation to their size by putting out leaves and roots. The account of the structures of different living bodies ii in great part the history of the attempt to make square measure greater in relation to solid measure. -- J. B. S. Haldane, "On Being the Right Size," in The Outlook of Science in Basic English, Psyche Miniatures, pp. 48-50.
- - - - -"Robinson Crusoe" by Daniel Defoe,
20 . Elephant, defined earlier as "the greatest living land animal." and after that adopted.
21 . Giraffe, described in detail before being adopted.
22 . Note the Basic use of microscope (international science vocabulary: see Appendix, p. 111) in translating this.
23 . Kidney, gill, and lung are on the biology list, but the translator here is keeping his additions down as low as possible and can well do without the two latter.
|Original . It happened one time24 that going a fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league25" from the shore, we lost sight of it;26 and rowing, we knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all day and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the land: however, we got well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning: but, particularly, we were all very hungry.-Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, Collins, p. 34.||
Basic . It came about one time24 that when we had gone fishing on a quiet morning, such a thick mist came up that, though we were not a mile and a half25 from the land, we were unable to see it.26 Without any knowledge of where, or even which way we were going, we went on in the boat all that day and all the night after.
When the morning came, we saw that we had been pulling out to sea, and not in to the land, and that we were at least six miles from it. We got back again after much hard work and some danger, because the wind became quite strong in the morning; but, more than anything, we all had a great desire for food. -- Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe put into Basic by T. Takata, Kegan Paul, 1933, pp. l9-2O.
- - - - -The following note by Mr. Desmond MacCarthy in The Sunday Times (London) of June 18, 1944, may be of interest :
24 . One time . Basic follows Defoe here. Notice the removal of what purists today would object to as a dangling participle in the subsequent construction.
25 . Half a league . The old measure is put into modern terms.
26 . Note how Defoe's sentence has been broken up and its parts rearranged to be dearer for a beginner.
"Midshipman Easy in Basic read more like a conte by Voltaire than a story by Marryat. In a sense it was better written, but the spirit of it was completely changed. Gone was the hearty, boyish, careless, gallant tone; that genial man-of-action humour, which makes light of violence and pain without excluding sympathy, had turned into a sort of detached irony!" He continues, "Basic is not a medium favourable to the creative or personal imagination. On the other hand it is a help towards mastering the kind of prose most suitable for matter-of-fact description (the passport photograph) or the exposition of semi-abstract themes."These just and acute remarks may be contrasted with such careless assertions as the following made by Mr., Jacques Barzun : "To obtain Basic we reduce abstract to concrete."
Original . He proceeded to climb on of the corronades, and lean over the hammocks27 to gaze on the distant land.
"Young gentleman, get off those hammocks," cried the master, who was officer of the watch, in a surly tone.
Jack looked round.
"Do you hear me, sir? I'm speaking to you," said the master again.
Jack felt very indignant, and he thought that politeness was not quite so general as he supposed
It happened that Captain Wilson was upon deck.
"Come here, Mr. Easy," said the captain. "It is a rule in the service, that no one gets on the hammock., unless in case of emergency -- I never do-- nor the first lieutenant -- nor any of the officers or men, -- therefore, upon the principle of equality you must not do it either."
"Certainly not, sir," replied jack, "but still I do not see why that officer in the shining hat should be so angry, and not speak to me as if I were a gentleman,28' as well as himself."
"I have already explained that to you, Mr. Easy."
"0 yes. I recollect now, it's zeal; but this zeal appears to me to be the only unpleasant thing in the service. It's a pity, as you said, that the service cannot do without it."
Captain Wilson laughed, and walked away, and shortly afterwards, as he turned up and down the deck with the master, he hinted to him, that he should not speak so sharply to a lad who had committed such a trifling error, through ignorance: Now Mr. Smallsole, the master, who was a surly sort of a personage, and did not like even a hint of disapprobation of his conduct, although very regardless of the feeling of others,29 determined to pay this off on Jack, the very first convenient opportunity.
Jack dined in the cabin, and was very much pleased to find that everyone drank wine with him, and that everybody at the captain's table appeared to be on an equality. Before the dessert had been on the table five minutes, Jack became loquacious on his favourite topic; all the company stared with surprise at such an unheard-of doctrine being broached on board a man-of-war; the captain argued the point, so as to controvert, without too much offending, Jack's notions, laughing the whole time that the conversation was carried on.
After Jack had dined in the cabin, he followed his messmates Jolliffe and Gascoigne down into the midshipman's berth.
"I say, Easy," observed Gascoigne, "you are a devilish free and easy sort of fellow, to tell the captain that you considered yourself as great a man as he was."
"I beg your pardon," replied Jack, "I did not argue individually, but generally, upon .the principles of the rights of man."
"Well," replied Gascoigne, "it's the first time I ever heard a middy do such a bold thing : take care your rights of man don't get you in the wrong box -- there's no arguing on board30 of a man-of-war. . . ."
"And yet it was with the expectation of finding that equality that I was induced to come to sea.
"On the first of April, I presume," replied Gascoigne. "But are you really serious?"
Hereupon Jack entered into a long argument, to which Jolliffe and Gascoigne listened without interruptions and Mesty with admiration -- at the end of it Gascoigne laughed heartily, and Jolliffe sighed.
"From whence did you learn all this?" inquired Jolliffe.
"From my father, who is a great philosopher, and has constantly upheld these opinions."
"And did your father wish you to go to sea?"
No, he was opposed to it," replied Jack, "but of course he could not combat my rights and free will."
"Mr. Easy, as a friend," replied Jolliffe. "I request31 that you would as much as possible keep your opinions to yourself; I shall have an opportunity of talking to you on the subject, and will then explain to you my reasons." -- F. Marryat, Mr. Midshipman Easy, New York, Century Company, 1906, pp. 60-61, 65-66.
Basic . To get a better view of the land in the distance, he got up on one of the guns.
"Young man, get off that gun," said the officer of the watch in an angry voice.
Jack gave him a look.
"Get down, sir -- I'm talking to you." said the officer roughly.
His way of talking gave Jack a shock; but Captain Wilson was on deck. "Come here, Mr. Easy," said the captain. "It is a rule in the navy that no one is to get on those guns -- I don't and the first officer doesn't or any of the officers or men -- so, on the theory that we are all equals, you have no right to do so".
"Certainly not, sir," said Jack, "but I still do not see why that officer is so angry and his way of talking so rough."'
"I have given you the reason for that sort of behavior, Mr. Easy."
"Oh yes -- love for the navy. But how sad that the navy isn't able to do without this love!"
Captain Wilson gave a laugh and later, while talking to Mr. Smallsole, the officer of the watch, he said a word or two about his rough language. Mr. Smallsole was not pleased at this29 and in his mind gave Jack a black mark.
Jack had a meal in the captain's room and was very much pleased to see that everyone took wine with him and that all at the captain's table seemed to be equals. Before the fruit had been on the table for five minutes, Jack was giving an account of his theories. Everyone was greatly surprised at hearing such ideas on a warship; the captain took the opposite side in the argument, but very kindly, laughing frequently.
After Jack had had his meal in the captain's room, he went down to the midshipmen's room after Jolliffe and Gascoigne.
"I say, Easy," said Gascoigne, "I'm surprised that you have the face to say to the captain that you are as good as he is."
"My argument was quite general," said Jack. "I was not talking about special persons.".
"Well," said Gascoigne, "it's the first time in my experience that a midshipman has done such a thing; take care that your rights of man don't get you into the wrong box -- there's no argument on30 a warship. . . .
"But it was with the hope of living in a free and equal society that I came to sea," said Jack.
"But are you serious?" said Gascoigne, greatly surprised. Jack got started on a long argument; at the end of it Gascoigne gave a laugh.
"Where did you get all these ideas?" said Jolliffe.
"From my father, who is a man of theories and has at all times put forward these opinions.
"And was it by your father's desire that you came to sea?"
"No, be was. against it," said Jack, "but naturally he was not able to make a fight against my rights."
"Mr. Easy, as a friend" said Jolliffe, "I would have you31 keep these opinions as much as possible to yourself. I will give you my reasons later." -- F. Marryat, Mr. Midshipman Easy, Cambridge, Basic English Publishing Company, 1942, pp. 37-39.
- - - - -
27 . Hammocks. Slight abridgements will be noticed when the translator has cut out details not readily comprehensible to readers unfamiliar with the arrangements on the warship of Nelson's day.
28 . The delicacies of social tone which gentleman brings in makes hard going for Basic, so the translator has cut this. We might try : "as if I were not as good as he" or "as if we were not equals." But the first risks making Mr. Easy seem aggressive, the second risks over-reiteration of the main burden of the tale.
29 . "This pleasing bit of psychology might have gone into Basic as "whose feelings were as readily wounded as he was ready to be wounding to others."
30 . Board is Basic but not in this phrase which would add to a learner's troubles without adding to his understanding.
31 . Would have you. Stricter Basic does not use would in this volitional sense. Please . can take Its place here . . .
Basic is not, of course, at present proposed as a medium in which documents of the historic importance of the Atlantic Charter should be definitively formulated. It is one of a number of means by which the peoples of the world can study to find out what has been said. But in framing such declarations, in the drafting of treaties generally, the peculiar relation of Basic to full English makes it an especially useful guard against the opposed dangers of such work : of seeming to undertake more than can be done and of technical unintelligibility. As an aid in exploring possibilities of misunderstanding, if nothing more. Basic may well have a part to play I this supremely important field of composition. And there will be more reason for a Basic version when a Pacific Charter comes to be written.
Original . The president of the United States and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill, representing His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being met together, deem it
right to make known certain common principles in the national policies of their respective countries on which they base their hopes for a better future for the world.32
First, their countries seek no aggrandizement, 33 as territorial or other.
Second, they desire to see no territorial changes that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the peoples concerned.
Third, they respect the right of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; 34 and they wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored to those who have been forcibly deprived of them.
Fourth, they will endeavour, with due respect for their existing obligations, to further the enjoyment by all States, great or small, victor or vanquished, of access, on equal terms35 to the trade and to the raw materials of the world which are needed for their economic prosperity.36
Fifth, they desire to bring about the fullest collaboration between all nations in the economic field, with the object of securing for all improved labour standards, economic advancement and social security.
Sixth, after the final destruction of Nazi tyranny, they hope to see established a peace which will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and" which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want.
Seventh, such a peace should enable all men to traverse the high seas and oceans without hindrance.
Eighth, they believe all of the nations of the world, for realistic as well as spiritual reasons, must come to the abandonment of the use of force. Since no future peace can be maintained if land, sea or air armaments continue to- be employed by nations which threaten, or may threaten, aggression outside of their frontiers, they believe, pending the establishment of a wider and permanent38 system of general security, that the disarmament of such nations is essential. They will likewise aid and encourage all other practicable measures which will lighten for peace-loving peoples the crushing burden of armaments. -- The Atlantic Charter.
Basic . The President of the United States and the Prime Minister, Mr. Churchill acting for His Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom, being now together, are of the opinion that it is right to make public certain common ideas in the political outlook of their two countries, on which are based their hopes for a better future for all nations.32
First their countries will do nothing to make themselves stronger 33 by taking more land or increasing their power in any other way.
Second, they have no desire for any land to be handed over from one nation to another without the freely voiced agreement of the men and women whose interests are in question.
Third, they take the view that all nations have, the right to say what form of government they will have;34 and it is their desire to see their self-government and rights as independent nations given back to those from whom they have been taken away by force.
Fourth, they will do their best, while respecting their present undertakings, to make it possible for all nations, great or small, whichever side they were on in the war, to take part in the trade, equally with others,35 and have the materials which are needed for the full development of their industry.36
Fifth, it is their desire to get all nations working together in complete harmony in the field of trade and industry, so that all may be given better working conditions, have greater material well-being, and be certain of the necessaries of existence.
Sixth, after the complete destruction of-the Nazi rule of force, it is their hope to see a peace made which will keep all nations safe from attack from outside, and37 which will make certain that all the men in all the lands will be free from fear and need through all their days.
Seventh, such a peace will have to make it possible for all men to go freely everywhere across the sea.
Eighth, it is their belief that all the nations of the earth, for material reasons no less than because it is right and good, will-in the-end, give up the use of force. Because war will come again if countries which are, or may be, ready to make attacks on others go on using. land, sea, or air power, it is their belief that it is necessary to take away all arms from theta till a wider system of keeping the general peace, more solid38 in structure, comes into being. They will, further, give their help and support to all other possible steps which may make the crushing weight of arms less for peace-loving nation. -- Basic version.
From high statesmanship to our next example is not so great a transition as it may seem.
A group of tenth- and eleventh-grade students from the Cambridge School, Inc., Kendal Green, Massachusetts, who had insisted upon studying Basic in their free time were recently looking for a practical application of their newly won ability. The Cambridge Community Federation were just then issuing a statement of general policy and current work. It was suggested that this would be a good opportunity for these youngsters to try out their Basic. If the statement were in Basic, curiosity might help to keep it in circulation. The project came at a difficult moment. The group were scattered to homes and work camps and vacation places by the time copy was available, but they picked three of themselves to act as an editorial committee and then divided up the work, co-ordinated the extremes, and met the deadline exactly. Extremely little editing was needed when the typescript came in. Here is a representative part of their statement.
Original . A well-balanced, effective program of social service requires careful planning. With many service organizations involved, both governmental and voluntary, it is important that their channels of service do not cross. Nor should there be gaps or omissions between the services rendered by the various organizations. Overlapping services cause waste and confusion. Gaps or omissions weaken the entire structure of the community's program. Also, close co-operation between all service organizations is essential. There is but one goal -- a better community. All must work hand in hand to achieve that common objective.
To promote the close co-ordination of all services-and to establish co-operation among all organizations-the Cambridge Community Council was formed. This council-now ten years old-is the planning board for Cambridge Voluntary Services. At regular meetings it feels the pulse of the community and is constantly working for the improvement of our social service program so that Cambridge needs may be met most effectively.
Basic . It takes thought and care to make up and put into operation a well-balanced program for these organizations which do work for the common good. There are numbers of them in existence, public and private, and it is important to keep them from covering some needs two or three times and others not at all. Two organizations doing much the same work make for waste. The effect is bad. And it is worse to have holes in the over-all program so that some needs go uncovered by any organization. Keeping in touch with one another -- that is the necessary thing. There is but one end- better living conditions for all. If that is to be the outcome, the way to get it is by joining hands in a common cause.
To keep all units working smoothly together, all organizations helping one another, the Cambridge Community Council was formed. This group is now ten years old. At regular meetings it makes observation of public needs and is ever on the lookout for changes which may be made in the program of the different organizations, so that they may be better servants of Cambridge.