OGDEN's BASIC ENGLISH
Words Not on the List, but Are There
Last updated on March 12, 2007 - add international, economics, mechanics .
A | B | C | D |
E | F | G | H |
I | J | K | L |
M | N | O | P |
Q | R | S | T |
U | V | W | X |
Y | Z
an -- variation of "a".
am , are - conjugation of "be"
away -- compound of a + way.
been , being -- conj. of "be"
better , best -- comparative and superlatives of Good and Well.
came , coming - conj of "come"
does , did , done , doing -- conj of "do"
economics -- title of supplimentary list
farther, farthest -- comparative and superlative of Far.
further, furthest -- from Far.
gave , given , giving -- conj. of "give"
gone , goes , going -- conj of "go"
got , gat , gotten , getting - conj. of "get"
has , hath , have , had , having - conj. of "have"
her , him -- pronouns of He.
his, hers -- possessive pronouns.
inner - comparative of "in"
international -- title of supplimentary list
is -- conj. of "be"
it , its, itself -- pronouns.
J , K
kept , keeping -- conj. of "keep"
less , least -- comparative forms of Little
made , making -- conj. of "make"
me , my , mine -- pronouns.
mechanics -- title in supplimentary list
might -- transitive of "may"
more , most -- comparative and superlative of Much.
nearer, nearest -- comparative of Near
never -- contraction of "not ever".
one -- Basic English assumes the numbers are known: 1, 2, 3, ...;
their spelled out use is from the international list, with "one" becoming a pronoun.
our, ours -- possessive pronoun
outer - comparative of out
P , Q , R
's -- possessive as "apostrophe s". Usage: Bob's box as alternate to box of Bob.
said , saying - conj of "say"
saw , seen , seeing -- conj. of "see"
sent , sending -- conj. of "send"
she -- feminine pronoun of He
their , them , these , they , those -- plural and possessive pronouns.
took , taken , taking -- conj. of "take"
us -- plural pronoun of " "I
was, were -- past tense of "be"
we -- plural of "I"
went -- past tense of "go"
worse, worst -- comparative and superlatives of bad
would -- from axillary "will"
what, which , whom, whose -- variations of the question, Who (Old English, "hwa")
your, yours -- possessive of You
The rule that operatives (verbs) and pronouns conjugate in full gives us, for example, for "be" : am, are, is, been, being, was, were.
And the full range of pronouns and possessives. The comparatives and superlatives adverbs are discussed separately. Several of the variations can be taken at face
value; to prove the variation may have to go back to Old English roots.
Words used although not there.
- economics : The word "economy" is in the "subsequent 350". The science of Economics,
as a proper noun, is allowed. Economics is a category within both Business and Social Studies. The use of the lower case "economics" by extension easily slips into usage in writings for these audiences.
- reference : The word "reference" is in three special word lists, most learners of Basic will be able to use the word, therefore it is a de facto Basic word.
- supply : The word "supply" is in three special word lists, most learners of Basic will be able to use the word, therefore it is a de facto Basic word.
- cross ; The word "cross" is in three special word lists and may be seen as a Basic word.
Words that are never used.
can/could == be able to, may / was able
These words are the clue that a person is using pure Basic English. The felt need to use these high frequency, tho unnecessary, words leads to the "Simple English" extension of Basic wherein the most common words are assumed to be known au priori. These words will not be known for international use, but are suitable in a "next step" for those going towards full English.
know == have knowledge ; be clear ; be certain
Can and know are the only "top 50 words" not in Basic 850. ( Top 50 words make up 43% of total English usage. )
Other popular words not in Basic are, in sequence,:
think, find, must, should, just, tell, leave, few, ask, follow, during , hold, around, consider, problem, plan, stand ,course ;
Followed by : city, close, unite, bring , try, provide, continue, pay, study, until , service, report, toward, figure, return, include, yet, big, expect, car, several, matter, usual, rather, per, often, action.
Alternate Spellings at various levels of common, but informal, usage.
though - tho ; through -thru ; laugh - laff ; cough - coff ;
rough - ruff ; tough - tuff ; enough - enuff ; light - lite ; bright - brite ;
night - nite ;
and complex words such as : throughway - thruway ; tonight - tonite ; overnight - overnite.
See Simplified Spelling
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or see : International Words or Miscellaneous Rules
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common variations and derivatives.